1,578 research outputs found

    Pre-inspection Mauritania Bivalve Mollusks Food Safety April 20-24th 2008

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    Mauritania is working on the completion of a Food Safety Program for Bivalve Mollusks, in order to be obtain an export approval by the Europe Union for the last 4 years (and before). For the second semester 2008 the FVO has programmed a veterinary inspection for the on bivalve mollusks. In order to prepare themselves for the veterinary inspection the competent authority of Mauritania (ONISPA) has requested Wageningen IMARES for a pre-inspection of the Mauritanian system. The pre-inspection was performed during the period of 20-24 April in Mauritania (Nouakchott and Nouadhibou)

    A generic approach for the development of short-term predictions of Escherichia coli and biotoxins in shellfish

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    Microbiological contamination or elevated marine biotoxin concentrations within shellfish can result in temporary closure of shellfish aquaculture harvesting, leading to financial loss for the aquaculture business and a potential reduction in consumer confidence in shellfish products. We present a method for predicting short-term variations in shellfish concentrations of Escherichia coli and biotoxin (okadaic acid and its derivates dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins). The approach was evaluated for 2 contrasting shellfish harvesting areas. Through a meta-data analysis and using environmental data in situ, satellite observations and meteorological nowcasts and forecasts), key environmental drivers were identified and used to develop models to predict E. coli and biotoxin concentrations within shellfish. Models were trained and evaluated using independent datasets, and the best models were identified based on the model exhibiting the lowest root mean square error. The best biotoxin model was able to provide 1 wk forecasts with an accuracy of 86%, a 0% false positive rate and a 0% false discovery rate (n = 78 observations) when used to predict the closure of shellfish beds due to biotoxin. The best E. coli models were used to predict the European hygiene classification of the shellfish beds to an accuracy of 99% (n = 107 observations) and 98% (n = 63 observations) for a bay (St Austell Bay) and an estuary (Turnaware Bar), respectively. This generic approach enables high accuracy short-term farm-specific forecasts, based on readily accessible environmental data and observations

    Evaluation of nanoporous materials for biotoxin capture

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    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biológica (área de especialização em Tecnologia do Ambiente)Biotoxins are metabolites produced by some microalgae species that can reach high concentrations when a massive proliferation of them occur. These kind of compounds are especially dangerous when concentrated in digestive glands of seafood. In general, biotoxins do not affect mollusks, however, the presence of biotoxins turns the mollusks unappropriated for human consumption. In this way, it is very important to improve monitoring methods of biotoxins in water in order to generate an early warning system before seafood becomes toxic. This thesis proposes an improvement in Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) devices for early warning of the presence of biotoxins in water. To do so, instead of using the chromatographic resins commonly used in SPATT devices, a new nanoporous material, Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs), was evaluated due to their pore uniform size to be similar to the toxins size. Adsorption/desorption tests of the lipophilic toxin okadaic acid (OA) in COFs were performed, at laboratorial scale, as well as tests of the reuse of the adsorbent material. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm at 19 ºC were determinated. Finally, diffusion of the toxin into the pores was studied. The results showed that COFs could improve SPATT devices performance since they can capture much more quantity of toxin (about 30 times more) that common chromatographic resins and faster due to the fact that toxin diffusion in pores is almost instantaneous. The determined Freundlich isotherm showed a favorable linear tendency. Finally, COFs can be reused, once desorption can be successfully made using solvents, such as 70 % ethanol and acetonitrile.As biotoxinas são metabolitos produzidos por algumas espécies de microalgas, que podem atingir altas concentrações aquando uma proliferação maciça das mesmas ocorre. Este tipo de compostos é especialmente perigoso quando concentrados nos sistemas digestivos do marisco. Geralmente, as biotoxinas não afetam o marisco, porém, a sua presença torna-o impróprio para consumo humano. Neste sentido, é importante que se melhorem os métodos de monotorização de biotoxinas na água, de maneira a que se possa estabelecer um sistema de alerta antecipado, antes de o marisco se tornar tóxico. Esta dissertação propõe um aperfeiçoamento de dispositivos de Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT), para uma deteção atempada da presença de biotoxinas na água. Para tal, em vez das resinas geralmente usadas nos dispositivos SPATT, foi avaliado um novo material nanoporoso, Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs), devido à uniformidade do tamanho de poro deste material ser mais semelhante ao tamanho das toxinas. Testes de adsorção/desorção da toxina lipofílica ácido ocadaíco (OA) foram feitos, à escala laboratorial, assim como testes de reuso do material adsorvente. As cinéticas de adsorção e a isotérmica de adsorção a 19 ºC foram determinadas. Por fim, a difusão da toxina nos poros do COF foi outro ponto estudado. Os resultados dos testes laboratoriais realizados mostram que os COFs podem melhorar o desempenho dos dispositivos de SPATT, uma vez que conseguem capturar muito mais quantidade de toxina (cerca de 30 vezes mais) que as resinas geralmente usadas nos dispositivos de SPATT e conseguem fazê-lo muito mais rapidamente, devido ao facto de a difusão da toxina nos poros ser quase instantânea. A isotérmica de Freundlich determinada mostrou ter uma tendência linear favorável. Por fim, o COF pode também ser reutilizado, uma vez que a dessorção de toxina pode ser feita com sucesso, usando solventes orgânicos, como o etanol a 70 % e o acetonitrilo

    Searching for Hyperspectral Optical Proxies to Aid Chesapeake Bay Resource Managers in the Detection of Poor Water Quality

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    Shellfish aquaculture is a growing industry in the Chesapeake Bay. As population grows near the coast, extreme weather events cause a greater volume of pollutant runoff from impervious surfaces and agricultural lands. Resource managers who monitor shellfish beds need reliable information on a variety of water quality indicators at higher frequency than is possible through field monitoring programs and at a higher level of detail than current satellite products can provide. Although many factors causing degraded water quality that can impact human health are not currently discernable by traditional multispectral techniques, hyperspectral imagery offers a new opportunity to detect phytoplankton communities associated with harmful algal blooms and biotoxin production. Together with resource managers in their routine monitoring of sites around the bay from small boats, we have been exploring remotely sensed optical proxies for the detection of harmful algal blooms and sewage. Early warning by remote sensing could guide sampling and improve the efficiency of shellfish bed closures, ultimately improving health outcomes for humans and animals. An extensive network of routine sampling by Chesapeake Bay Program managers makes this is an ideal location to develop and test future satellite data products to support management decisions. Next generation hyperspectral measurements from the future Plankton Aerosol Cloud ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission at nearly daily frequency, combined with the potential of higher spatial resolution from the Surface Biology and Geology (SBG) observing system recommended in the recent Decadal Survey, along with high frequency observations from the newly selected Geostationary Littoral Imaging and Monitoring Radiometer (GLIMR) Earth Venture Instrument make this a critical time for defining the needs of the aquaculture and resource management community to save lives, time, and money

    Diarrhetic shellfish toxin monitoring in commercial wild harvest bivalve shellfish in new south wales, Australia

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    © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. An end-product market survey on biotoxins in commercial wild harvest shellfish (Plebidonax deltoides, Katelysia spp., Anadara granosa, Notocallista kingii) during three harvest seasons (2015–2017) from the coast of New South Wales, Australia found 99.38% of samples were within regulatory limits. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) were present in 34.27% of 321 samples but only in pipis (P. deltoides), with two samples above the regulatory limit. Comparison of these market survey data to samples (phytoplankton in water and biotoxins in shellfish tissue) collected during the same period at wild harvest beaches demonstrated that, while elevated concentrations of Dinophysis were detected, a lag in detecting bloom events on two occasions meant that wild harvest shellfish with DSTs above the regulatory limit entered the marketplace. Concurrently, data (phytoplankton and biotoxin) from Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) harvest areas in estuaries adjacent to wild harvest beaches impacted by DSTs frequently showed elevated Dinophysis concentrations, but DSTs were not detected in oyster samples. These results highlighted a need for distinct management strategies for different shellfish species, particularly during Dinophysis bloom events. DSTs above the regulatory limit in pipis sampled from the marketplace suggested there is merit in looking at options to strengthen the current wild harvest biotoxin management strategies

    Adapting Biotoxin Monitoring For The Future: An Opportunity For A Harmful Algae Bloom (HAB) Network In Casco Bay, Maine

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    Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) related to marine biotoxins have considerable impacts on coastal communities and have been increasing in size and frequency globally. Maine is recognized as a leader in biotoxin management as it relates to bivalve shellfish, but it has been unclear how current management practices effect the growth of shellfish aquaculture and how they will adapt to future conditions. This research uses a collaborative approach to analyze the current state of biotoxin management in Maine. First, the current management practices in Maine were compared and contrasted with five other states dealing with similar issues. Then, the perspectives of primary stakeholders in the oyster aquaculture industry were investigated through surveys and interviews. Lastly, the interactions specifically between the oyster aquaculture industry and biotoxin management were examined in Casco Bay. Comparative case study results demonstrate that Maine effectively manages biotoxins but is lacking in data transparency and stakeholder engagement. Survey results suggest, oyster aquaculturists in Casco Bay are acutely aware of issues in biotoxin monitoring and are eager to find innovative solutions, as their livelihoods are directly impacted by the closures. An independent HAB network in Casco Bay would be an effective approach to increase stakeholder engagement and transparency around closure decisions. This will require initiative from both the grower community as well as the regulators. A new HAB Network has the potential to build trust between the regulators and oyster aquaculturists, as well as contribute to future HAB research

    Best Practice Description Document

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    This work received support and funding from • The BOHAB project (Biological Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms off the west coast of Ireland) through the National Development Plan 2000 – 2006 with the support of the Marine Institute and the Marine RTDI (Research, Technology, Development and Innovation) Measure, Productive Sector Operational Programme, Grant-aid Agreement No. ST/02/01. • the ASIMUTH project (Applied simulations and Integrated modelling for the understanding of toxic and harmful algal blooms) through the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) for Research and Technological Development - EC FP7 Programme, Space Theme, Grant Agreement No. 261860 • the MyOcean 2 project through the EC FP7 Programme, Space Theme, Grant Agreement No. 283367 • the AtlantOS project through the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant Agreement No. 633211 • The PRIMROSE (Predicting the impact of regional scale events on the aquaculture sector) project, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund through the Interreg Atlantic Area Programme, EAPA_182/2016 • The CoCliME (Co-development of climate services for adaptation to changing marine ecosystems) project is part of the European Research Area for Climate Services (ERA4CS), an ERA-NET initiated by JPI Climate, and funded by EPA (IE), ANR (FR), BMBF (DE), UEFISCDI (RO), RCN (NO) and FORMAS (SE), with co-funding by the European Union (Grant Agreement No. 690462).This document describes the procedural steps in creating an information product focused on toxic and harmful phytoplankton. The product is an online Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) bulletin for aquaculturists, who can face serious operational challenges in the days after a HAB event. Data from satellite, numerical hydrodynamic models and In-situ ocean observations are organised and presented into visual information products. These products are enhanced through local expert evaluation and their interpretation is summarised in the bulletin. This document aims to provide both process overviews (the “what” of the Best Practice in producing the bulletins) and detail procedures (the “how” of the Best Practice”) so that the bulletins may be replicated in other geographic regions.European Commissio

    Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing : challenges and opportunities in the 21st century

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    Author Posting. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 96 (2016): 61-91, doi:10.1017/S0025315415001733.Microalgal blooms are a natural part of the seasonal cycle of photosynthetic organisms in marine ecosystems. They are key components of the structure and dynamics of the oceans and thus sustain the benefits that humans obtain from these aquatic environments. However, some microalgal blooms can cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (valued fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments. HABs are natural phenomena, but these events can be favoured by anthropogenic pressures in coastal areas. Global warming and associated changes in the oceans could affect HAB occurrences and toxicity as well, although forecasting the possible trends is still speculative and requires intensive multidisciplinary research. At the beginning of the 21st century, with expanding human populations, particularly in coastal and developing countries, there is an urgent need to prevent and mitigate HABs’ impacts on human health and wellbeing. The available tools to address this global challenge include maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects to understand the relevance of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans and human health and wellbeing.The research was funded in part by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) for the MEDMI Project; the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Environmental Change and Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in partnership with Public Health England (PHE), and in collaboration with the University of Exeter, University College London and the Met Office; and the European Regional Development Fund Programme and European Social Fund Convergence Programme for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (University of Exeter Medical School). EB was supported by the CTM2014-53818-R project, from the Spanish Government (MINECO). KDA was in receipt of funding from the BBSRC-NERC research programme for multidisciplinary studies in sustainable aquaculture: health, disease and the environment. P. Hess was supported by Ifremer (RISALTOX) and the Regional Council of the Pays de la Loire (COSELMAR). Porter Hoagland was supported by the US National Science Foundation under NSF/CNH grant no. 1009106.2016-05-2

    Harmful Algal Bloom Bulletins

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    Use Case Title: Harmful Algal Blooms Environmental matrix of interest (Air, Ice, Mar. Water, etc.): Marine Study Regions: Shelf Seas in Norway, Ireland and Spain Dissemination Method: Web Providing near real-time and forecast information for the aquaculture industry along Europe’s Atlantic coast is of vital importance in mitigating the effects of HABs. In this task, In-situ and satellite data will be amalgamated in a decision support system. In-situ data include oceanographic data e.g. water column structure, current speeds, biological samples (e.g. algal toxins, phytoplankton cell counts, barcoding) and hydrographic and biogeochemical information where possible. The In-situ data will be used to inform and validate biophysical models and to produce circulation forecasts for the coming three to five days. These data will undergo expert interpretation to produce an early warning bulletin to the aquaculture industry in Spain, Norway and Ireland. The bulletin will be distributed over a specified production season to fish farmers and shellfish production facilities so that husbandry and harvesting techniques can reflect the prevailing HAB conditions at any point in time
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