17,622 research outputs found

    The role of information in evolutionary biology

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    The Modern Synthesis has received criticism for its purported gene-centrism. That criticism relies on a concept of the gene as a unit of instructional information. In this paper I discuss information concepts and endorse one, developed from Floridi, that sees information as a functional relationship between data and context. I use this concept to inspect developmental criticisms of the Modern Synthesis and ar- gue that the instructional gene arose as an idealization practice when evolutionary biologists made comment on development. However, a closer inspection of key claims shows that at least some associated with the Modern Synthesis were in fact adopting the data led definition I favour and made clear arguments for the role of developmental processes beyond genetic input. There was no instructional gene

    Agronomic traits of white oat treated with the growth regulator trinexapac-ethyl

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    ABSTRACT The growth and yield performance of white oat cultivars may vary in response to doses of trinexapac-ethyl (TE) growth regulator. The objective of the work was to evaluate the lodging and productive performance of white oat cultivars under different doses of trinexapac-ethyl growth regulator. The experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications, in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four doses of trinexapac-ethyl (0, 50, 100 and 150 g ha-1) applied in the phenological stage between the 1st visible stalk node and the 2nd perceptible node in two white oat cultivars (URS Altiva and URS Corona). The following were evaluated: plant height, panicle length, panicles per m2, spikelets per panicle, grains per spikelet, number of grains per panicle, thousand grain weight, plant lodging and grain yield. The application of trinexapac-ethyl at doses 100 and 150 g ha-1 reduces plant height and panicle components: length, number of spikelets and grains per panicle of the two cultivars. TE doses above 100 g ha-1 provide a significant reduction in lodging with an increase in the number of panicles per m2 and in grain yield for the two white oat cultivars

    Molecular Research in Rice: Agronomically Important Traits 2.0

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    This volume presents recent research achievements concerning the molecular genetic basis of agronomic traits in rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important food crop in the world, being a staple food for more than half of the world’s population. Recent improvements in living standards have increased the worldwide demand for high-yielding and high-quality rice cultivars. To develop novel cultivars with superior agronomic performance, we need to understand the molecular basis of agronomically important traits related to grain yield, grain quality, disease resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance. Decoding the whole rice genome sequence revealed that ,while there are more than 37,000 genes in the ~400 Mbp rice genome, there are only about 3000 genes whose molecular functions are characterized in detail. We collected in this volume the continued research efforts of scholars that elucidate genetic networks and the molecular mechanisms controlling agronomically important traits in rice

    Metabolomics-based discovery of XHP as a CYP3A4 inhibitor against pancreatic cancer

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    Background: Xihuang Wan (XHW), a purgative and detoxifying agent, is commonly utilized in modern medicine as a treatment and adjuvant therapy for various malignancies, including breast cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. A clinical study demonstrated the potential usefulness of the combination of XHW and gemcitabine as a therapy for pancreatic cancer (PC), indicating that XHW’s broad-spectrum antitumor herbal combination could be beneficial in the treatment of PC. However, the precise therapeutic efficacy of XHW in treating pancreatic cancer remains uncertain.Aim: This study assessed the biological activity of XHW by optimizing the therapeutic concentration of XHW (Xihuang pills, XHP). We performed cell culture and developed an animal test model to determine whether XHP can inhibit pancreatic cancer (PC). We also applied the well-known widely targeted metabolomics analysis and conducted specific experiments to assess the feasibility of our method in PC therapy.Materials and Methods: We used UPLC/Q-TOF-MS to test XHP values to set up therapeutic concentrations for the in vivo test model. SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells were cultured to check the effect the anti-cancer effects of XHP by general in vitro cell analyses including CCK-8, Hoechst 33258, and flow cytometry. To develop the animal model, a solid tumor was subcutaneously formed on a mouse model of PC and assessed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL apoptosis assay. We also applied the widely targeted metabolomics method following Western blot and RT-PCR to evaluate multiple metabolites to check the therapeutic effect of XHP in our cancer test model.Results: Quantified analysis from UPLC/Q-TOF-MS showed the presence of the following components of XHP: 11-carbonyl-β-acetyl-boswellic acid (AKBA), 11-carbonyl-β-boswellic acid (KBA), 4-methylene-2,8,8-trimethyl-2-vinyl-bicyclo [5.2.0]nonane, and (1S-endo)-2-methyl-3-methylene-2-(4-methyl-3-3-pentenyl)-bicyclo [2.2.1heptane]. The results of the cell culture experiments demonstrated that XHP suppressed the growth of SW1990 PC cells by enhancing apoptosis. The results of the animal model tests also indicated the suppression effect of XHP on tumor growth. Furthermore, the result of the widely targeted metabolomics analysis showed that the steroid hormone biosynthesis metabolic pathway was a critical factor in the anti-PC effect of XHP in the animal model. Moreover, Western blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed XHP downregulated CYP3A4 expression as an applicable targeted therapeutic approach.Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated the potential of XHP in therapeutic applications in PC. Moreover, the widely targeted metabolomics method revealed CYP3A4 is a potential therapeutic target of XHP in PC control. These findings provide a high level of confidence that XHP significantly acts as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in anti-cancer therapeutic applications

    Glycation Interferes with the Activity of the Bi-Functional UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine 2-Epimerase/N-Acetyl-mannosamine Kinase (GNE)

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    Mutations in the gene coding for the bi-functional UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE), the key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis, are responsible for autosomal-recessive GNE myopathy (GNEM). GNEM is an adult-onset disease with a yet unknown exact pathophysiology. Since the protein appears to work adequately for a certain period of time even though the mutation is already present, other effects appear to influence the onset and progression of the disease. In this study, we want to investigate whether the late onset of GNEM is based on an age-related effect, e.g., the accumulation of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Furthermore, we also want to investigate what effect on the enzyme activity such an accumulation would have. We will particularly focus on glycation, which is a PTM through non-enzymatic reactions between the carbonyl groups (e.g., of methylglyoxal (MGO) or glyoxal (GO)) with amino groups of proteins or other biomolecules. It is already known that the levels of both MGO and GO increase with age. For our investigations, we express each domain of the GNE separately, treat them with one of the glycation agents, and determine their activity. We demonstrate that the enzymatic activity of the N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE-kinase domain) decreases dramatically after glycation with MGO or GO—with a remaining activity of 13% ± 5% (5 mM MGO) and 22% ± 4% (5 mM GO). Whereas the activity of the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (GNE-epimerase domain) is only slightly reduced after glycation—with a remaining activity of 60% ± 8% (5 mM MGO) and 63% ± 5% (5 mM GO).Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation)Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftPeer Reviewe

    Aflatoxins

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    The aflatoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius, although they are also produced by other species of Aspergillus as well as by Emericella spp.(Telemorph). There are many types of aflatoxins, but the four main ones are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2, while aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and M2 (AFM2) are the hydroxylated metabolites of AFB1 and AFB2. Aflatoxin B1, which is a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, which presumptively causes cancer by inducing DNA, adducts leading to genetic changes in target liver cells. Cytochrome-P450 enzymes to the reactive intermediate AFB1–8, 9 epoxide (AFBO) which binds to liver cell DNA, resulting in DNA adducts, metabolize AFB1 Ingestion of contaminated food is the main source of exposure to aflatoxins, which adversely affect the health of both humans and animals. The compounds can cause acute or chronic toxic effects of a teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic or hepatotoxic character. You can reduce your aflatoxin exposure by buying only major commercial brands of food and by discarding that look moldy, discolored, or shriveled
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