4,378 research outputs found

    Landscape phage, phage display, stripped phage, biosensors, detection, affinity reagent, nanotechnology, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus anthracis

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    Filamentous phage, such as fd used in this study, are thread-shaped bacterial viruses. Their outer coat is a tube formed by thousands equal copies of the major coat protein pVIII. We constructed libraries of random peptides fused to all pVIII domains and selected phages that act as probes specific for a panel of test antigens and biological threat agents. Because the viral carrier is infective, phage borne bio-selective probes can be cloned individually and propagated indefinitely without needs of their chemical synthesis or reconstructing. We demonstrated the feasibility of using landscape phages and their stripped fusion proteins as new bioselective materials that combine unique characteristics of affinity reagents and self assembling membrane proteins. Biorecognition layers fabricated from phage-derived probes bind biological agents and generate detectable signals. The performance of phage-derived materials as biorecognition films was illustrated by detection of streptavidin-coated beads, Bacillus anthracis spores and Salmonella typhimurium cells. With further refinement, the phage-derived analytical platforms for detecting and monitoring of numerous threat agents may be developed, since the biodetector films may be obtained from landscape phages selected against any bacteria, virus or toxin. As elements of field-use detectors, they are superior to antibodies, since they are inexpensive, highly specific and strong binders, resistant to high temperatures and environmental stresses.Comment: Submitted on behalf of TIMA Editions (http://irevues.inist.fr/tima-editions

    Developments in nanoparticles for use in biosensors to assess food safety and quality

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    The following will provide an overview on how advances in nanoparticle technology have contributed towards developing biosensors to screen for safety and quality markers associated with foods. The novel properties of nanoparticles will be described and how such characteristics have been exploited in sensor design will be provided. All the biosensor formats were initially developed for the health care sector to meet the demand for point-of-care diagnostics. As a consequence, research has been directed towards miniaturization thereby reducing the sample volume to nanolitres. However, the needs of the food sector are very different which may ultimately limit commercial application of nanoparticle based nanosensors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

    Development of an electrochemical maltose biosensor

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    In this work, electrochemical maltose biosensors based on mutants of the maltose binding protein (MBP) are developed. A ruthenium II complex (Ru II ), which is covalently attached to MBP, serves as an electrochemical reporter of MBP conformational changes. Biosensors were made through direct attachment of Ru II complex modified MBP to gold electrode surfaces. The responses of some individual mutants were evaluated using square wave voltammetry. A maltose-dependent change in Faradic current and capacitance was observed. It is therefore demonstrated that biosensors using generically this family of bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (bPBP) can be made lending themselves to facile biorecognition element preparation and low cost electrochemical transduction

    Biorecognition Chemistry

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    Biorecognition Chemistry

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    Local detection of enzymatic ion generation with polycrystalline silicon interdigitated electrodes and its application to biosensing

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    Chips containing polycrystalline silicon interdigitated electrodes are modified with the enzyme urease. The sensors are able to detect changes in the resitivity of the solution near their surface, where the enzymatic reaction generates charged species. The electrodes are also grafted with an antigen and queried with different amounts of urease labeled antibody. The response of the modified electrodes is proportional to the amount of enzyme attached to the surface by the biorecognition event, thus validating the assay for biosensing applications

    High sensitivity and multifunctional micro-Hall sensors fabricated using InAlSb/InAsSb/InAlSb heterostructures

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    Further diversification of Hall sensor technology requires development of materials with high electron mobility and an ultrathin conducting layer very close to the material's surface. Here, we describe the magnetoresistive properties of micro-Hall devices fabricated using InAlSb/InAsSb/InAlSb heterostructures where electrical conduction was confined to a 30 nm-InAsSb two-dimensional electron gas layer. The 300 K electron mobility and sheet carrier concentration were 36 500 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) and 2.5 x 10(11) cm(-2), respectively. The maximum current-related sensitivity was 2 750 V A(-1) T-1, which was about an order of magnitude greater than AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic heterostructures devices. Photolithography was used to fabricate 1 mu m x 1 mu m Hall probes, which were installed into a scanning Hall probe microscope and used to image the surface of a hard disk

    Folate-based single cell screening using surface enhanced Raman microimaging

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    Recent progress in nanotechnology and its application to biomedical settings have generated great advantages in dealing with early cancer diagnosis. The identification of the specific properties of cancer cells, such as the expression of particular plasma membrane molecular receptors, has become crucial in revealing the presence and in assessing the stage of development of the disease. Here we report a single cell screening approach based on Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) microimaging. We fabricated a SERS-labelled nanovector based on the biofunctionalization of gold nanoparticles with folic acid. After treating the cells with the nanovector, we were able to distinguish three different cell populations from different cell lines (cancer HeLa and PC-3, and normal HaCaT lines), suitably chosen for their different expressions of folate binding proteins. The nanovector, indeed, binds much more efficiently on cancer cell lines than on normal ones, resulting in a higher SERS signal measured on cancer cells. These results pave the way for applications in single cell diagnostics and, potentially, in theranostic

    Biorecognition Chemistry

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