33 research outputs found

    Bioindication of fluoride pollution by the use of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) mandibles: situation and perspectives

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    Zaradi nara┼í─Źajo─Źih koncentracij fluoridov v okolju in njihove strupenosti so raziskovalci v zadnjih desetletjih razvili razli─Źne metode za ocenjevanje vpliva teh onesna┼żil na ┼żive organizme. Za ugotavljanje izpostavljenosti in vplivov fluoridov na sesalce (predvsem parkljarje) se uporabljajo metode akumulacijske bioindikacije (tj. dolo─Źevanje vsebnosti fluoridov v kostnih tkivih, npr. ─Źeljustih) in/ali metode odzivne bioindikacije (npr. makroskopskodolo─Źevanje stopnje zobne fluoroze kot specifi─Źne morfolo┼íke spremembe, ki ka┼że na vpliv izpostavljenosti fluoridom na tvorbo in razvoj sklenine v ─Źasu zobne formacije). Primernost ─Źeljusti prosto┼żive─Źih pre┼żvekovalcev (zlasti srnjadi) kot bioindikatorjev onesna┼żenosti potrjuje v preteklosti ugotovljeni obstoj mo─Źnih pozitivnih soodvisnosti med koncentracijami fluoridov v okolju in: (i) vsebnostjo fluoridov v ─Źeljustih srnjadi/jelenjadi(ii) stopnjo zobne fluoroze obeh omenjenih vrst. Uporaba ─Źeljusti v bioindikacijske namene je primerna tudi z logisti─Źnega in stro┼íkovnega vidika, saj se ─Źeljusti parkljarjev v marsikateri dr┼żavi sistemati─Źno zbirajo z namenom kognitivnega in kontroliranega upravljanja s populacijami. Zaradi tega so dostopne v velikem ┼ítevilu, praviloma z vsemi potrebnimi atributnimi in geografskimi podatki o posameznem uplenjenem osebku. Slednje omogo─Źa izvedbo veliko-povr┼íinskih (a prostorsko zelo natan─Źnih), cenovno ugodnih in zanesljivih biomonitoringov onesna┼żenosti okolja s fluoridi, ki smo jih leta 2008 uvedli tudi v Sloveniji.Due to the increasing concentrations of fluorides in the environment, several bioindication methods for assessing the impact of fluoride pollution on living organisms have been developed in the last few decades. Studies of the exposure and impact of fluorides on mammals (primarily ungulates) are performed either as different methods of accumulative bioindication (i.e. determination of fluoride levels in bones, e.g. mandibles) and/or as methods of response bioindication (e.g. macroscopic assessment of the presence and severity of dental fluorosis as a specific morphologic change, which is the consequence of fluorides affecting the formation and development of the enamelin the time of tooth formation). Suitability of ungulates (particularly roe deer) mandibles as a perfect biomonitoring tool for assessingthe fluoride pollution has often been confirmed by the determination of strong positive correlations between fluoride concentrations in the environment and: (i) fluoride levels in mandibles of red/roe deer(ii) severity of dental fluorosis in both deer species. A high potential of roe deer mandibles for bioindication purposes is stimulated by the fact that lower jaws of ungulates are often (in Slovenia they even must be) systematically collected with the purpose of cognitive management and control. Therefore, huge numbers of mandibles are available in Europe, equipped with all the needed individual (e.g. age, sex, health status) and geographical data (culling location). This enables large-scale (even national-wide, as seen in the case of Slovenia), but nevertheless spatially accurate environmental biomonitoring of fluoride pollution, in a reliable and cost effective way. Such biomonitoring programme started in Slovenia in 2008

    The use of epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of air quality along selected road sections in Slovenia

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    Li┼íaje smo uporabili kot pasivne odzivne bioindikatorje za ugotavljanje onesna┼żenosti zraka na lokacijah ob izbranih slovenskih cestah z razli─Źno gostoto prometa. S popisi na razli─Źnih oddaljenostih od roba cesti┼í─Źa na vsaki izmed izbranih lokacij smo ugotavljali tudi vplivno obmo─Źje emisij iz prometa na kakovost zraka. Izbrali smo dve razli─Źni metodi popisov, in sicer preprosto oceno kakovosti zraka na podlagi ┼ítevil─Źnosti in pokrovnosti razli─Źnih rastnih oblik li┼íajev (SI metoda) ter zahtevnej┼ío metodo, ki temelji na bele┼żenju vrst li┼íajev (metoda VDI). Ugotovili smo, da tudi na lokacijah z zmerno gostoto prometa (povpre─Źni dnevni promet < 20.000) emisije iz prometa vplivajo na kakovost zraka, a le v ozkem pasu ob cesti (< 100 m), saj vrstna sestava li┼íajev, ┼ítevilo razli─Źnih vrst ter tudi izra─Źunani indeks izra─Źne ─Źistosti po obeh izbranih metodah ka┼żejo na to, da je na izbranih lokacijah vpliv le v 1. popisnem pasu, torej tik ob cestah, a z oddaljenostjo od ceste hitro upada.For the assessment of air quality at locations along selected road sections with different traffic density, epiphytic lichens were used as passive reactive bioindicators. With the mapping at different distances from the roadside at each location, the trafficrelated pollution impact area was assessed. Two different mapping methods were used, specifically the simple assessment of air quality, based on the assessment of frequency and coverage of different lichen growth forms (the SI method), and more demanding one, based on mapping of lichen species (the VDI method). We conclude that at locations with moderate traffic density (average daily traffic < 20,000) the traffic-related emissions have an influence on air quality as well, except that the impact is limited to a narrow zone along the roads (< 100 m). The epiphytic lichen species composition, the number of different lichen species, as well as calculated indexes of air purity according to two different methods indicate influence of traffic-pollution in the first mapping zone (adjacent to roads), with the impact level decreasing with the distance from the roads

    Fungi as responsive and accumulative bioindicators of forest site pollution in the Šalek valley

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    V ┼áale┼íki dolini smo analizirali talne in nadzemne glivne zdru┼żbe z namenom ugotoviti potencialno onesna┼żenost gozdnih rasti┼í─Ź. Glive smo uporabili kot odzivne (pojavljanje trosnjakov vi┼íjih gliv, raziskave tipov ektomikorize in mikoriznega potenciala tal) in akumulacijske (analize te┼żkih kovin v trosnjakih gliv) kazalce stanja gozdnega ekosistema. Opravljali smo naslednje raziskave: (a) popise trosnjakov vi┼íjih gliv, (b) raziskave tipov ektomikorizein njihove biodiverzitete, (c) analize mikoriznega potenciala tal in (d) raziskave vsebnosti te┼żkih kovin v trosnjakih gliv. V vseh primerih so se glive pokazale kot u─Źinkovit bioindikator stanja gozdnega ekosistema.Belowground and aboveground fungal communities in the ┼áalek Valley were analysed to assess the potential forest site pollution. Fungi were used as responsive (the inventory of macrofungi, determination of types of ectomycorrhizae, analyses of mycorrhizal potential) and accumulative bioindicators (heavy metal level in fruiting bodies of higher fungi). The following issues were emphasized: (a) inventory of macrofungi, (b) identification and biodiversity of types of ectomycorrhizae(c) analysis of mycorrhizal potential of differently polluted forest research plotsand (d) determination of heavy metal levels in fruiting bodies of macrofungi. Considering all issues, fungi were confirmed as effective bioindicators of forest ecosystem condition

    Nihajo─Źa asimetrija rogovja srnjakov (Capreolus capreolus L.) kot kazalec onesna┼żenosti okolja in pripomo─Źek za upraljanje s populacijami

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    Na 282 rogovjih srnjakov, uplenjenih v obdobju 1961 - 2002 v ┼áale┼íki dolini, smo dolo─Źili nihajo─Źo asimetrijo (FAneusmerjene razlike med levo in desno stranjo) devetih bilateralnih morfolo┼íkih znakov. Ugotovili smo: (a) za analize FA je primernih pet znakov (dol┼żina veje, dol┼żina prednjega in zadnjega paro┼żka, skupna dol┼żina veje, premer nastavka), ki ustrezajo potrebnim statisti─Źnim pogojem(b) za vse znake obstaja pozitivna soodvisnostmed velikostjo in asimetrijo, zaradi ─Źesar FA rogovja ni primeren kazalec kakovosti posameznih osebkov(c) lan┼í─Źaki (zaradi nedokon─Źanega telesnega razvoja asimetrija njihovega rogovja ni ustrezen kazalec onesna┼żenosti) imajo zna─Źilno ve─Źjo FA kot odrasli srnjaki(d) FA je po letu 1980 upadala in je bila po izgradnji raz┼żveplalne naprave na TE┼á manj┼ía kot pred njo(e) na ravni generacij obstaja zna─Źilna pozitivna soodvisnost med povpre─Źnimi vsebnostmi Pb v rogovju in povpre─Źno FA, kar ka┼że, da je onesna┼żenost okolja eden najpomembnej┼íih dejavnikov stresa, ki vpliva na razvojno stabilnost procesa tvorbe rogovja.Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which represents non-directional differences between the left and the right side, was measured for nine bilateral traits inthe antlers of 282 roe deer, shot in the period 1961 - 2002 in the ┼áalek Valley. Our findings were as follows: (a) Five traits (antler length, length of both front and back tine, total beam length, and pedicle diameter) are suitable for FA analyses, since they fulfil the necessary statistical criteria. (b) A significant positive correlation between size and asymmetry exists for all traitstherefore, roe deer antler asymmetry does not reflect the quality of an individual. (c) Yearlings, whose antler asymmetry is not a suitable bioindicator of environmental pollution due to an incomplete ontogenetic development, have significantly higher FA in comparison with adults. (d) In the ┼áalek Valley, roe deer antler FA has been decreasing since 1980after the construction of the desulphurization device in the ┼áo┼ítanj Thermal Power Plant it is significantly lower in comparison with the period before construction. (e) On the generation level, there is a significant positive correlation between mean Pb levels in antlers and their mean FA, which identifies environmental pollution as one of the main stressors causing deviation from bilateral symmetry of deer antlers

    Poškodbe gozdov - slovenske posebnosti

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    Impact of environmental factors on the appearance and distribution of dental fluorosis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in eastern Slovenia

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    Pove─Źane koncentracije fluoridov v okolju negativno vplivajo na ┼ítevilne ┼żivalske vrsteena najbolj vidnih posledic je nepravilni razvoj trdih zobnih tkiv oz. zobna fluoroza. Z ocenjevanjem stopnje zobne fluoroze pri vsej odrasli srnjadi, odvzeti iz vzhodne Slovenije v 10 lovsko-upravljavskih obmo─Źjih leta 2007 (n = 7.158), izvedbo statisti─Źnih analiz v rastrskem GIS okolju z razmeroma veliko prostorsko lo─Źljivostjo (1 km2) ter s kartografskim prikazom smo ┼żeleli: (i) ugotoviti razlike v pojavnosti in stopnji zobne fluoroze pri srnjadi razli─Źnih obmo─Źij vzhodne Slovenije(ii) dolo─Źiti vpliv glavnih virov emisij na stopnjo in pojavnost zobne fluoroze(iii) dolo─Źiti najpomembnej┼íe okoljske dejavnike, ki vplivajo na pojavnost zobne fluoroze. Ugotovili smo, da vzhodna Slovenija na splo┼íno s fluoridi ni onesna┼żena, saj se zmerna in mo─Źna fluoroza pojavljata pri manj kot 1 % vzorcev84 % vzorcev ni kazalo fluoroze. Le v okolici najve─Źjega vira fluoridov v Sloveniji (tovarna aluminija) je ve─Źje obmo─Źje velike obremenjenosti okolja s flouridi. Z multivariatnimi statistikami smo ugotovili, da na pojavnost in stopnjo fluoroze vplivajo: (i) oddaljenost od najve─Źjega vira emisij (94,6 % pojasnjene variance)(ii) starost srnjadi (5 % pojasnjene variance)(iii) oddaljenost od najbli┼żjega gozdnega roba (0,7 % pojasnjene variance).Increased concentrations of fluorides in the environment have a negative impact on different animal species, which are manifested mainly with the irregular formation of the dental hard tissue, called dental fluorosis. With the assessment of dental fluorosis in every adult roe deer shot in eastern Slovenia in 10 Hunting Management Districts in 2007 (n = 7,158), implementation of statistical analyses in raster GIS environment with high resolution (1x1 km) and cartography, we wished to: (i) establish the differences in the appearance and distribution of dental fluorosis in roe deer from different areas of eastern Slovenia(ii) define the impact of the main sources of fluorides on the appearance and distribution of dental fluorosis(iii) determine the most important environmental factors that have an impact on the appearance of dental fluorosis. In general, eastern Slovenia is not polluted with fluorides, while less than 1% of samples showed moderate to severe dental fluorosis84% of samples showed no fluorosis at all. Only inthe vicinity of the most important source of fluorides in Slovenia (aluminium smelter), there is an area with extreme fluoride pollution of the environment. The multivariate statistics revealed that the appearance and distribution of dental fluorosis are influenced primarily by: (i) the distancefrom the most important point source - (94.6% of the total variance)(ii) the age of the analysed animal (5% of the total variance)and (iii) the distance from the nearest forest edge (0.7% of the total variance), respectively

    Prirast i vitalnost hrasta lu┼żnjaka u Sremu sa aspekta promene vodostaja Save

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    The decline in vitality and dieback of oak forests is increasingly present Vojvodina. This is old challenge for forestry, which again became actual. The paper used dendrochronological methods with the intention to describe trends in growth of pedunculate oak forests in Srem and trends of the water level of the Sava River and air temperature, which are defined as critical to the vitality of these forests. Predicted were water levels of Sava River in the 21st century with overview of its implications on the oak forests growth. Samples were taken from three stands in Srem (Stara Vrati─Źna, Smogva and Blate). Flows of Sava river were taken according to five climate scenarios for the periods 2012-2040 and 2042-2070, and converted into the water levels. A trend of decrease in growth in all three stands in last 30 years was observed, together with decrease in water level and temperature rise. Predicted future water levels of the Sava River were in general lower than those in the period 1951-1981, and higher than in the period 1982-2012. The differences between the various scenarios, as well as the impossibility of adequate simulations of extreme events, leavs space for further considerations.Opadanje vitalnosti i su┼íenje ┼íuma je sve vi┼íe prisutno u ┼íumama hrasta lu┼żnjaka u Vojvodini. Stari izazov za ┼íumarstvo koji ponovo postaje aktuelan. U radu su kori┼í─çene dendrohronolo┼íke metode sa namerom da se prika┼żu trendovi prirasta hrasta lu┼żnjaka u Sremu i trendovi vodostaja reke Save i temperature koji su definisani kao kriti─Źni za vitalnost ovih ┼íuma. Izvr┼íeno je predvi─Ĺanje vodostaja Save u 21. veku i dat osvrt na njen uticaj na ┼íume lu┼żnjaka. Uzorci su uzeti iz tri sastojine u Sremu (Stara Vrati─Źna, Smogva i Blate). Razmatrano je pet klimatskih scenarija budu─çih protoka reke Save za period 2012-2040 i 2042-2070, koji su prera─Źunati u vodostaje. Uo─Źen je trend smanjenje prirasta u sve tri istra┼żivane sastojine u proteklih 30 godina, kao i trend smanjenja vodostaja i porasta temperature. Projekcije budu─çih vodostaja reke Save su u ve─çini slu─Źajeva bile ni┼że od onih u periodu 1951-1981, a vi┼íe od onih u period 1982-2012. Razlike izme─Ĺu razli─Źitih scenarija, kao i nemogu─çnost verodostojne simulacije ekstremnih voda, ostavlja prostora za dalja razmatranja

    Historical biomonitoring of environmental pollution with lead and Fluorides inthe Šalek valley with the aid of roe deer antlers

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    V ┼áale┼íki dolini oziroma v okolici Termoelektrarne ┼áo┼ítanj (TE┼á) smo dolo─Źili vsebnosti svinca in fl uoridov v zgodovinski seriji 129 rogovij srnjakov, uplenjenih v obdobju 1961-2004. Najvi┼íje vsebnosti obeh onesna┼żil smo izmeriliv vzorcih iz sredine prej┼ínjega stoletja (Pb: ? = 4,21 } 2,57 mg/kg, max = 7,28 mg/kgF-: ? = 1453 } 113 mg/kg, max = 2590 mg/kg), najni┼żje pa vtistih iz obdobja 2000-2004 (Pb: ? = 0,58 } 0,11 mg/kg, min = 0,15 mg/kgF-: ? = 500 } 113 mg/kg, min = 110 mg/kg). Onesna┼żenost okolja z anorganskimionesna┼żili je v preu─Źevanem obmo─Źju v zadnjih desetletjih kontinuirano upadala, kar potrjuje u─Źinkovitost ukrepov za zmanj┼íevanje onesna┼żevanja okolja (postavitev in rekonstrukcija daljinskega toplovodnega sistema ogrevanja, prehod na neosvin─Źen bencin, postavitev naprav za raz┼żveplanje dimnih plinov TE┼á). Ugotovljena visoko zna─Źilna soodvisnost med letnimi emisijami anorganskih onesna┼żil iz TE┼á in povpre─Źnimi letnimi vsebnostmi Pb oziroma F- v rogovju srnjakov ka┼że, da vsebnosti obeh onesna┼żil v rogovju odli─Źno odsevajo upad emisij iz TE┼á, posledi─Źno pa potrjujejo tudi uspe┼ínost sanacijskih ukrepov, opravljenih na njej.Key words: srnjad, rogovje,retrospektivni biomonitoring, onesna┼żenost okolja, svinec, fluoridi, ┼áale┼íka dolina, Termoelektrarna ┼áo┼ítanj.Contents of lead and fluorides were determined in the historical set of 129 roe deer antlers, shot in the period 1961-2004 in the vicinity of the ┼áo┼ítanj Thermal Power Plant (┼áTPP), the ┼áalek Valley, Slovenia. The highest levels of both pollutants were determined in antlers from the sixties/eighties (Pb: ? = 4.21 } 2.57 mg/kg, max = 7.28 mg/kgF-: ? = 1453 } 113 mg/kg, max = 2590 mg/kg), while the lowest levels were found in the most recent antlers (2000-2004 period: Pb: ? = 0.58 } 0.11 mg/kg, min = 0.15 mg/kgF-: ? = 500 } 113 mg/kg, min = 110 mg/kg). Pollution with inorganic substances has continuously decreased in the study area during the last decades, which confi rms the effi ciency of some ecological remediation measures carried out in the┼áalek Valley (e.g. construction of the remote heating system, introduction of unleaded petrol, and particularly construction of the flue gas cleaning devices at the ┼áTPP, respectively). Indeed, highly positive correlations between annual emissions of gaseous pollutants from the ┼áTPP and the mean yearly Pb/F- levels in roe deer antlers indicate that the decrease of Pb/F- contents in antlers reflects a significant reduction of emissions from the ┼áTPPconsequently, it confirms the effectiveness of remediation measures implemented on/at the ┼áTPP itself

    Historical biomonitoring of environmental pollution with lead and Fluorides inthe Šalek valley with the aid of roe deer antlers

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    Contents of lead and fluorides were determined in the historical set of 129 roe deer antlers, shot in the period 1961-2004 in the vicinity of the Šoštanj Thermal Power Plant (ŠTPP), the Šalek Valley, Slovenia. The highest levels of both pollutants were determined in antlers from the sixties/eighties (Pb: ? = 4.21 } 2.57 mg/kg, max = 7.28 mg/kg; F-: ? = 1453 } 113 mg/kg, max = 2590 mg/kg), while the lowest levels were found in the most recent antlers (2000-2004 period: Pb: ? = 0.58 } 0.11 mg/kg, min = 0.15 mg/kg; F-: ? = 500 } 113 mg/kg, min = 110 mg/kg). Pollution with inorganic substances has continuously decreased in the study area during the last decades, which confi rms the effi ciency of some ecological remediation measures carried out in theŠalek Valley (e.g. construction of the remote heating system, introduction of unleaded petrol, and particularly construction of the flue gas cleaning devices at the ŠTPP, respectively). Indeed, highly positive correlations between annual emissions of gaseous pollutants from the ŠTPP and the mean yearly Pb/F- levels in roe deer antlers indicate that the decrease of Pb/F- contents in antlers reflects a significant reduction of emissions from the ŠTPP; consequently, it confirms the effectiveness of remediation measures implemented on/at the ŠTPP itself
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