105,984 research outputs found

    Simulation of benzene transport and biodegradation during transient hydraulic conditions

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    Thesis (M.S.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2000MODFLOW and BIOMOC were used to simulate transport and biodegradation of benzene in the alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Chena River. MODFLOW was used to calculate ground water fluxes at the boundaries of the BIOMOC model, which was used to model transport and biodegradation of benzene. A benzene plume located 300 ft. southeast of the study site is superimposed onto the cross-sectional model of the study area. Only saturated zone processes were modeled. Anaerobic biodegradation was the only simulated biodegradation process. The simulation shows 0.003% of the theoretical benzene entering the saturated zone is biodegraded, 0.6% is adsorbed by solids, and 99.4% leaves the model boundaries. The simulation predicts theoretical concentrations of benzene are 2 to 8 ug/l when discharging into the river. Field data do not support this finding. Processes not simulated, such as aerobic degradation at the water table, may make significant contributions toward limiting benzene transport

    In vivo testing of crosslinked polyethers. II. Weight loss, IR analysis, and swelling behavior after implantation

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    As reported in Part I (In vivo testing of crosslinked polyethers. I. Tissue reactions and biodegradation, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., this issue, pp. 307-320), microscopical evaluation after implantation of crosslinked (co)polyethers in rats showed differences in the rate of biodegradation, depending on the presence of tertiary hydrogen atoms in the main chain and the hydrophilicity of the polyether system. In this article (Part II) the biostability will be discussed in terms of weight loss, the swelling behavior, and changes in the chemical structure of the crosslinked polyethers after implantation. The biostability increased in the order poly(POx) < poly(THF-co-OX) < poly(THF) for the relatively hydrophobic polyethers. This confirmed our hypothesis that the absence of tertiary hydrogen atoms would improve the biostability. On the other hand, signs of biodegradation were observed for all polyether system studied. Infrared surface analysis showed that biodegradation was triggered by oxidative attack on the polymeric chain, leading to the formation of carboxylic ester and acid groups. It also was found that in the THF-based (co)polyethers, α-methylene groups were more sensitive than β-methylene groups. For a hydrophilic poly(THF)/PEO blend, an increase in surface PEO content was found, which might be due to preferential degradation of the PEO domains

    Biodegradation of microcystin-LR using acclimatized bacteria isolated from different units of the drinking water treatment plant

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    Bacterial community isolated from different units of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) including pre-ozonation unit (POU), the effluent-sludge mixture of the sedimentation unit (ESSU) and top-sand layer water sample from the filtration unit (TSFU) were acclimatized separately in the microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR)-rich environment to evaluate MC-LR biodegradation. Maximum biodegradation efficiency of 97.2 ± 8.7% was achieved by the acclimatized-TSFU bacterial community followed by 72.1 ± 6.4% and 86.2 ± 7.3% by acclimatized-POU and acclimatized-ESSU bacterial community, respectively. Likewise, the non-acclimatized bacterial community showed similar biodegradation efficiency of 71.1 ± 7.37%, 86.7 ± 3.19% and 94.35 ± 10.63% for TSFU, ESSU and POU, respectively, when compared to the acclimatized ones. However, the biodegradation rate increased 1.5-folds for acclimatized versus non-acclimatized conditions. The mass spectrometry studies on MC-LR degradation depicted hydrolytic linearization of cyclic MC-LR along with the formation of small peptide fragments including Adda molecule that is linked to the reduced toxicity (qualitative toxicity analysis). This was further confirmed quantitatively by using Rhizobium meliloti as a bioindicator. The acclimatized-TSFU bacterial community comprised of novel MC-LR degrading strains, Chryseobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas fragi as confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Biodegradation of microcystin-LR by in-situ bacterial community present in the drinking water treatment plant without formation of toxic by-product.Fil: Kumar, Pratik. Université du Québec a Montreal; CanadáFil: Hegde, Krishnamoorthy. Université du Québec a Montreal; CanadáFil: Brar, Satinder Kaur. Université du Québec a Montreal; CanadáFil: Cledón, Maximiliano. Universidad Nacional del Comahue; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Kermanshahi-pour, Azadeh. Dalhousie University Halifax; CanadáFil: Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey. University of Montreal; CanadáFil: Galvez-Cloutier, Rosa. Laval University; Canad

    Modeling the effect of soil meso- and macropores topology on the biodegradation of a soluble carbon substrate

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    Soil structure and interactions between biotic and abiotic processes are increasingly recognized as important for explaining the large uncertainties in the outputs of macroscopic SOM decomposition models. We present a numerical analysis to assess the role of meso- and macropore topology on the biodegradation of a soluble carbon substrate in variably water saturated and pure diffusion conditions . Our analysis was built as a complete factorial design and used a new 3D pore-scale model, LBioS, that couples a diffusion Lattice-Boltzmann model and a compartmental biodegradation model. The scenarios combined contrasted modalities of four factors: meso- and macropore space geometry, water saturation, bacterial distribution and physiology. A global sensitivity analysis of these factors highlighted the role of physical factors in the biodegradation kinetics of our scenarios. Bacteria location explained 28% of the total variance in substrate concentration in all scenarios, while the interactions among location, saturation and geometry explained up to 51% of it

    Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

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    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers

    A critical review of the formation of mono- and dicarboxylated metabolic intermediates of alkylphenol polyethoxylates during wastewater treatment and their environmental significance

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    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published article is available from the link below. Copyright @ 2010 Taylor & Francis.Alkylphenoxyacetic acids, the metabolic biodegradation products of alkylphenol ethoxylates, are commonly found in wastewaters and sewage effluents. These persistent hydrophilic derivatives possess intrinsic estrogenic activity, which can mimic natural hormones. Their concentrations increase through the sewage treatment works as a result of biodegradation and biotransformation, and when discharged can disrupt endocrine function in fish. These acidic metabolites represent the dominant alkylphenolic compounds found in wastewater effluent and their presence is cause for concern as, potentially, through further biotransformation and biodegradation, they can act as sources of nonylphenol, which is toxic and estrogenic. The authors aim to assess the mechanisms of formation as well as elimination of alkylphenoxyacetic acids within conventional sewage treatment works with the emphasis on the activated sludge process. In addition, they evaluate the various factors influencing their degradation and formation in laboratory scale and full-scale systems. The environmental implications of these compounds are considered, as is the need for tertiary treatment processes for their removal

    Cloning and expression of first gene for biodegrading microcystins by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05

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    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs) in natural waters are a growing environmental problem worldwide because microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria are potent hepatotoxins and tumor promoters. MCs are resistant against physical and chemical factors. Thus, biodegradation is the most efficient method for removing MCs, and a number of bacterial strains, especially genus _Sphingomonas_, have been isolated for biodegrading MCs. Although the pathway, enzyme, and gene for biodegrading MCs by _Sphingomonas sp._ have been widely identified recently, no gene concerned with the biodegradation of MCs has been successfully cloned and expressed. In this study, we show that the first and most important gene of mlrA, containing 1,008 bp nucleotides in length, in the biodegradation pathway of MCs by _Sphingopyxis sp._ USTB-05, which encodes an enzyme MlrA containing 336 amino acid residues, is firstly cloned and expressed in _E. coli_ DH5&#x3b1;, with a cloning vector of pGEM-T easy and an expression vector of pGEX-4T-1. The encoded and expressed enzyme MlrA is responsible for cleaving the target peptide bond between 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid (Adda) and Arg in the cyclic structure of microcystin-RR &#xff08;MC-RR&#xff09;and microcystin-LR&#xff08;MC-LR), two typical and toxic types of MCs. Linear MC-RR and MC-LR are produced as the first products. These findings are important in constructing a new genetic bacterial strain for the efficient removal of MCs from the important water supplies and resolving the controversy on the biodegradation pathway of different types of MCs by genus _Sphingomonas_

    Pollutants Biodegradation by Fungi

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    Revisión sobre los mecanismos de detoxificación de contaminantes por hongosOne of the major problems facing the industrialized world today is the contamination of soils, ground water, sediments, surfacewater and air with hazardous and toxic chemicals. The application of microorganisms which degrade or transform hazardous organic contaminants to less toxic compounds has become increasingly popular in recent years. This review, with approximately 300 references covering the period 2005-2008, describes the use of fungi as a method of bioremediation to clean up environmental pollutants

    Degradation of Dispersants and Dispersed Oil

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    Chemical oil dispersants are proprietary mixtures of surfactants and solvents which are directly applied to a spill in order to reduce the natural attractive forces of the oil. When oil treated with dispersants is exposed to mixing energy, typically from wind and wave action, it is broken up into small droplets which may then become entrained in the water column (Li et al., 2009a; Li et al., 2009b; Li, 2008; Lunel, 1995). Many of these droplets are small enough to be neutrally buoyant, and therefore, advection and diffusion forces dilute the plume and transport the droplets far from the site of the original spill. As compared to a surface oil slick or larger and more buoyant physically dispersed oil droplets, these chemically dispersed droplets are much easier for oil-degrading bacteria to colonize and break down (Venosa and Holder, 2007; Venosa and Zhu, 2003). In addition, small droplets enhance dissolution of soluble and semi-volatile compounds into surrounding waters, wherein biodegradation is carried out by aqueous phase microbes. Under these conditions, oil concentration are effectively reduced below toxicity threshold limits, and biodegradation becomes the most important process in reducing the total mass of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. By enabling rapid dispersion and biodegradation of surface oil slicks at sea, the use of chemical oil dispersants can be effective in preventing heavy oiling of sensitive coastal environments such as beaches and wetlands, and consequently mitigates risk associated with marine and terrestrial wildlife coming into direct contact with a slick

    Inclusion of seasonal variation in river system microbial communities and phototroph activity increases environmental relevance of laboratory chemical persistence tests

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    Regulatory tests assess crop protection product environmental fate and toxicity before approval for commercial use. Although globally applied laboratory tests can assess biodegradation, they lack environmental complexity. Microbial communities are subject to temporal and spatial variation, but there is little consideration of these microbial dynamics in the laboratory. Here, we investigated seasonal variation in the microbial composition of water and sediment from a UK river across a two-year time course and determined its effect on the outcome of water-sediment (OECD 308) and water-only (OECD 309) biodegradation tests, using the fungicide isopyrazam. These OECD tests are performed under dark conditions, so test systems incubated under non-UV light:dark cycles were also included to determine the impact on both inoculum characteristics and biodegradation. Isopyrazam degradation was faster when incubated under non-UV light at all collection times in water-sediment microcosms, suggesting that phototrophic communities can metabolise isopyrazam throughout the year. Degradation rate varied seasonally between inoculum collection times only in microcosms incubated in the light, but isopyrazam mineralisation to 14CO2 varied seasonally under both light and dark conditions, suggesting that heterotrophic communities may also play a role in degradation. Bacterial and phototroph communities varied across time, but there was no clear link between water or sediment microbial composition and variation in degradation rate. During the test period, inoculum microbial community composition changed, particularly in non-UV light incubated microcosms. Overall, we show that regulatory test outcome is not influenced by temporal variation in microbial community structure; however, biodegradation rates from higher tier studies with improved environmental realism, e.g. through addition of non-UV light, may be more variable. These data suggest that standardised OECD tests can provide a conservative estimate of pesticide persistence end points and that additional tests including non-UV light could help bridge the gap between standard tests and field studies
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