20,806 research outputs found

    Heterogeneity in mode choice behavior: A spatial latent class approach based on accessibility measures

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    We propose a method to estimate mode choice models, where preference parameters are sensitive to the spatial context of the trip origin, challenging traditional assumptions of spatial homogeneity in the relationship between travel modes and the built environment. The framework, called Spatial Latent Classes (SLC), is based on the integrated choice and latent class approach, although instead of defining classes for the decision maker, it estimates the probability of a location belonging to a class, as a function of spatial attributes. For each Spatial Latent Class, a different mode choice model is specified, and the resulting behavioral model for each location is a weighted average of all class-specific models, which is estimated to maximize the likelihood of reproducing observed travel behavior. We test our models with data from Portland, Oregon, specifying spatial class membership models as a function of local and regional accessibility measures. Results show the SLC increases model fit when compared with traditional methods and, more importantly, allows segmenting urban space into meaningful zones, where predominant travel behavior patterns can be easily identified. We believe this is a very intuitive way to spatially analyze travel behavior trends, allowing policymakers to identify target areas of the city and the accessibility levels required to attain desired modal splits

    –źmelioration by phytoadaptogene of effects of balneofactors of Truskavets‚Äô Spa on patients with post-radiation encephalopathy

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    Background.¬†We have previously explored effects of Ukrainian¬†phytocomposition ‚ÄúBalm Truskavets‚Äô‚Ä̬†on parameters of neuro-endocrine-immune complex and biophotonics in humans with maladaptation.¬†It is known that in patients with post-radiation encephalopathy the reaction to some stimuli is significantly changed, therefore it needs correction.¬†The purpose of this study is to test the ability of this phytocomposition to amelioration the effects of standard balneotherapeutic complex in patients with post-radiation encephalopathy.¬†Material and methods. The research was carried out through a retrospective analysis of the database of the Truskavetsian Scientific School of Balneology, which remained unpublished. The object of observation in 1997 were 19 men and 3 women with urate¬†urolithiasis and chronic pyelonephritis¬†who were exposed to pathogenic factors of the accident at the Ch–ĺrnobylian nuclear power plant during the liquidation of its consequences in 1986-87. The survey was conducted twice: on admission and after two weeks of rehabilitation in sanatorium ‚ÄúPerlyna Prykarpattya‚Ä̬†(Truskavets‚Äô Spa). 11 patients received standard balneotherapy¬†while¬†the other 11 patients additionally received the phytocomposition¬†‚ÄúBalm Truskavets‚Äô‚ÄĚ. According to the protocol, blood pressure,¬†routine hematological and biochemical blood parameters were determined. In addition, physical working capacity (PWC150)¬†as well as EEG, heart rate variability (HRV) and immunity parameters were determined.¬†Results. Standard balneotherapy increases the decreased level of T-helper lymphocytes, but further decreases the level of B-lymphocytes, glomerular filtration rate and PWC150, in combination with increased normal levels of blood creatinine and urea, as well as decreased levels of diastolic BP and heart rate.¬†This is accompanied by a further increase in the sympathetic tone and the leveling of the increased of ULF band HRV as marker of level in the plasma of catecholamines and glucocorticoids.¬†Additional use of phytocomposition limits the adverse effects of standard balneotherapy by modulating EEG and HRV parameters. Conclusion. Phytocomposition¬†"Balm¬†Truskavets'" by¬†modulating¬†the¬†parameters¬†of¬†the¬†nervous¬†system¬†limits¬†the¬†adverse¬†effects¬†of¬†standard¬†balneotherapy¬†at¬†the¬†Truskavets‚Äô¬†Spa¬†in¬†patients¬†with¬†post-radiation¬†encephalopathy

    Small newborns in post-conflict Northern Uganda: Burden and interventions for improved outcomes

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    Introduction: A small newborn can be the result of either a low birthweight (LBW), or a preterm birth (PB), or both. LBW can be due to either a preterm appropriate-for gestational-age (preterm-AGA), or a term small-for-gestational age (term-SGA) or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). An IUGR is a limited in-utero foetal growth rates or foetal weight < 10th percentile. Small newborns have an increased risk of dying, particularly in low-resource settings. We set out to assess the burden, the modifiable risk factors and health outcomes of small newborns in the post-conflict Northern Ugandan district of Lira. In addition, we studied the use of video-debriefing when training health staff in Helping Babies Breathe. Subjects and methods: In 2018-19, we conducted a community-based cohort study on 1556 mother-infant dyads, nested within a cluster randomized trial. In our cohort study, we estimated the incidence and risk factors for LBW and PB and the association of LBW with severe outcomes. We explored the prevalence of and factors associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia, as well as any association between neonatal death and hypoglycaemia. In addition, we conducted a cluster randomized trial to compare Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) training in combination with video debriefing to the traditional HBB training alone on the attainment and retention of health worker neonatal resuscitation competency. Results: The incidence of LBW and PB in our cohort was lower than the global estimates, 7.3% and 5.0%, respectively. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria was associated with a reduced risk of LBW. HIV infection was associated with an increased risk of both LBW and PB, while maternal formal education (schooling) of ‚Č•7 years was associated with a reduced risk of LBW and PB. The proportions of neonatal deaths were many-folds higher among LBW infants compared to their non-LBW counterparts. The proportion of neonatal deaths among LBW was 103/1000 live births compared to 5/1000 among the non-LBW. The prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia in our cohort was 2.5%. LBW and PB each independently were associated with an increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Neonatal hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation and severe outcomes. We demonstrated that neonatal resuscitation training with video debriefing, improved competence attainment and retention among health workers, compared to traditional HBB training alone. Conclusion: In northern Uganda, small infants still have a many-fold higher risk of dying compared to normal infants. In addition, small infants are also at more risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia compared to normal infants. Efforts are needed to secure essential newborn care, should we reach the target of Sustainable Development Goal number 3.2 of reducing infant mortality to less than 12/1000 live births by 2030

    Investigating the Impacts of Urban Built Environment on Travel Energy Consumption: A Case Study of Ningbo, China

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    The built environment of cities has increasingly affected the travel mode of residents and led to changes in energy consumption, which is crucial to maintaining urban sustainability. Ningbo is a typical representative of urbanization on the east coast of China, and its energy consumption is in a period of rapid growth. Therefore, using the survey data of 22,112 traffic trip samples from nine streets in Ningbo, this paper establishes a regression analysis model, systematically analyzes the relationship between the built environment and domestic energy consumption from multiple dimensions, and reveals the impact mechanism of the built environment on domestic energy consumption. We find that (1) social and economic conditions are the main factors affecting traffic energy consumption. (2) The population density has a significant negative correlation effect on the energy consumption of transportation trips. When the population density increases by 1%, the energy consumption of total transportation trips, commuting trips, high-energy-consumption trips, and low-energy-consumption trips decreases by 0.094%, 0.115%, 0.273%, and 0.124%, respectively. (3) When the degree of mixed use of land increases by one percentage point, the energy consumption of total transportation trips, commuting trips, high-energy-consumption trips, and low-energy-consumption trips decreases by 0.415%, 0.421%, 2.574%, and 1.197%, respectively. (4) The density of road intersections has a significant negative correlation effect on the energy consumption of traffic trips. (5) The impact of the built environment on the energy consumption of transportation trips is greater than that of residential buildings

    Anu√°rio cient√≠fico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Sa√ļde de Lisboa - 2021

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    √Č com grande prazer que apresentamos a mais recente edi√ß√£o (a 11.¬™) do Anu√°rio Cient√≠fico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Sa√ļde de Lisboa. Como institui√ß√£o de ensino superior, temos o compromisso de promover e incentivar a pesquisa cient√≠fica em todas as √°reas do conhecimento que contemplam a nossa miss√£o. Esta publica√ß√£o tem como objetivo divulgar toda a produ√ß√£o cient√≠fica desenvolvida pelos Professores, Investigadores, Estudantes e Pessoal n√£o Docente da ESTeSL durante 2021. Este Anu√°rio √©, assim, o reflexo do trabalho √°rduo e dedicado da nossa comunidade, que se empenhou na produ√ß√£o de conte√ļdo cient√≠fico de elevada qualidade e partilhada com a Sociedade na forma de livros, cap√≠tulos de livros, artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais, resumos de comunica√ß√Ķes orais e p√≥steres, bem como resultado dos trabalhos de 1¬ļ e 2¬ļ ciclo. Com isto, o conte√ļdo desta publica√ß√£o abrange uma ampla variedade de t√≥picos, desde temas mais fundamentais at√© estudos de aplica√ß√£o pr√°tica em contextos espec√≠ficos de Sa√ļde, refletindo desta forma a pluralidade e diversidade de √°reas que definem, e tornam √ļnica, a ESTeSL. Acreditamos que a investiga√ß√£o e pesquisa cient√≠fica √© um eixo fundamental para o desenvolvimento da sociedade e √© por isso que incentivamos os nossos estudantes a envolverem-se em atividades de pesquisa e pr√°tica baseada na evid√™ncia desde o in√≠cio dos seus estudos na ESTeSL. Esta publica√ß√£o √© um exemplo do sucesso desses esfor√ßos, sendo a maior de sempre, o que faz com que estejamos muito orgulhosos em partilhar os resultados e descobertas dos nossos investigadores com a comunidade cient√≠fica e o p√ļblico em geral. Esperamos que este Anu√°rio inspire e motive outros estudantes, profissionais de sa√ļde, professores e outros colaboradores a continuarem a explorar novas ideias e contribuir para o avan√ßo da ci√™ncia e da tecnologia no corpo de conhecimento pr√≥prio das √°reas que comp√Ķe a ESTeSL. Agradecemos a todos os envolvidos na produ√ß√£o deste anu√°rio e desejamos uma leitura inspiradora e agrad√°vel.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Consent and the Construction of the Volunteer: Institutional Settings of Experimental Research on Human Beings in Britain during the Cold War

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    This study challenges the primacy of consent in the history of human experimentation and argues that privileging the cultural frameworks adds nuance to our understanding of the construction of the volunteer in the period 1945 to 1970. Historians and bio-ethicists have argued that medical ethics codes have marked out the parameters of using people as subjects in medical scientific research and that the consent of the subjects was fundamental to their status as volunteers. However, the temporality of the creation of medical ethics codes means that they need to be understood within their historical context. That medical ethics codes arose from a specific historical context rather than a concerted and conscious determination to safeguard the well-being of subjects needs to be acknowledged. The British context of human experimentation is under-researched and there has been even less focus on the cultural frameworks within which experiments took place. This study demonstrates, through a close analysis of the Medical Research Council's Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU) and the government's military research facility, the Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton Down (Porton), that the `volunteer' in human experiments was a subjective entity whose identity was specific to the institution which recruited and made use of the subject. By examining representations of volunteers in the British press, the rhetoric of the government's collectivist agenda becomes evident and this fed into the institutional construction of the volunteer at the CCRU. In contrast, discussions between Porton scientists, staff members, and government officials demonstrate that the use of military personnel in secret chemical warfare experiments was far more complex. Conflicting interests of the military, the government and the scientific imperative affected how the military volunteer was perceived

    Strategies for Early Learners

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    Welcome to learning about how to effectively plan curriculum for young children. This textbook will address: ‚ÄĘ Developing curriculum through the planning cycle ‚ÄĘ Theories that inform what we know about how children learn and the best ways for teachers to support learning ‚ÄĘ The three components of developmentally appropriate practice ‚ÄĘ Importance and value of play and intentional teaching ‚ÄĘ Different models of curriculum ‚ÄĘ Process of lesson planning (documenting planned experiences for children) ‚ÄĘ Physical, temporal, and social environments that set the stage for children‚Äôs learning ‚ÄĘ Appropriate guidance techniques to support children‚Äôs behaviors as the self-regulation abilities mature. ‚ÄĘ Planning for preschool-aged children in specific domains including o Physical development o Language and literacy o Math o Science o Creative (the visual and performing arts) o Diversity (social science and history) o Health and safety ‚ÄĘ Making children‚Äôs learning visible through documentation and assessmenthttps://scholar.utc.edu/open-textbooks/1001/thumbnail.jp


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    Physical-activity oriented community fundraising has experienced an exponential growth in popularity over the past 15 years. The aim of this study was to explore the value of effortful fundraising experiences, from the point of view of participants, and explore the impact that these experiences have on people’s lives. This study used an IPA approach to interview 23 individuals, recognising the role of participants as proxy (nonprofessional) fundraisers for charitable organisations, and the unique organisation donor dynamic that this creates. It also bought together relevant psychological theory related to physical activity fundraising experiences (through a narrative literature review) and used primary interview data to substantiate these. Effortful fundraising experiences are examined in detail to understand their significance to participants, and how such experiences influence their connection with a charity or cause. This was done with an idiographic focus at first, before examining convergences and divergences across the sample. This study found that effortful fundraising experiences can have a profound positive impact upon community fundraisers in both the short and the long term. Additionally, it found that these experiences can be opportunities for charitable organisations to create lasting meaningful relationships with participants, and foster mutually beneficial lifetime relationships with them. Further research is needed to test specific psychological theory in this context, including self-esteem theory, self determination theory, and the martyrdom effect (among others)
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