1,325 research outputs found

    Determining Relationships Between Kinematic Sequencing and Baseball Pitch Velocity Using pitchAITM

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    Professional baseball pitchers have consistently been increasing pitch velocity since 2008 (the first year of automated pitch tracking and classification at all 30 MLB stadiums) and increasing the number of pitches thrown over 95mph (Sullivan, 2019). Fastball velocity is a primary risk factor for elbow injuries as there is a general linear relationship with increased elbow torques (Aguinaldo & Chambers, 2009; Chalmers et al., 2016; Slowik et al., 2019). The kinematic sequence has been referred to as the order and magnitude of joint angular velocities during the pitch delivery and has been associated with pitch velocity and elbow torque (Nicholson et al., 2022a, 2022b; Scarborough, Leonard, et al., 2021). The purpose of the research was to identify kinematic sequence metrics associated with pitch velocity and use them to predict pitch velocity using pitchAITM (Dobos et al., 2022). A total of 80 pitchers (187.2 ± 8.2 cm, age 20.1 ± 3.3 years) ranging in skill level from high school to professional baseball participated in this study. Video for pitchAITM, player height and weight were collected at 2 baseball training facilities. Extracted pitchAITM data included the peak magnitudes and relative timings of pelvis rotation velocity, trunk rotation velocity, elbow extension velocity, and shoulder internal rotation velocity. Average pitch velocity in the data set was 85.3 ± 5.7 mph or 38.1 ± 2.5 m/s. Pitch velocity was predicted using both a multilinear regression, as well as a custom neural network model. The multilinear regression generated a significant prediction for pitch velocity with an R2 = 0.368 and p < 0.01. Pitcher weight (β = 0.535, p < 0.001), peak pelvis rotational velocity timing (β = -0.157, p = 0.001), peak elbow extension timing (β = 0.122, p = 0.006), and peak shoulder internal rotation timing (β = -0.113, p = 0.018), were significant contributors to the multilinear model. The neural network model significantly predicted velocity with an R2 = 0.372, p < 0.01. Actual and predicted velocity were not significantly different (p = 0.353). In conclusion, pitchAITM kinematic sequencing can predict pitch velocity using both a multilinear regression and custom neural network

    The Decline in African-American Players in Major League Baseball

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    After Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier in 1947, Major League Baseball saw an increase in African-American participation. Despite numerous Black superstars who have played the game, participation has declined over time. The decline became evident to many during the 2022 World Series; zero active African-American players were on either team\u27s roster. This project aims to uncover the various factors contributing to the decline in African-American participation in baseball. It also serves as a way to highlight the stories of specific Black players. Statistical evidence and articles highlight the decline in participation and Black players\u27 stories. The final product was a research essay that concluded with solutions to improve African-American participation in baseball

    Deterrence Defeats Doping: How Arbitration Can Resolve Major League Baseball\u27s Performance-Enhancing Drug Problem

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    This article analyzes MLB’s PED policy and proposes amending the policy by arbitrating the agreement to create one that further deters players from using PEDs. The remainder of this article is divided into five parts: Part II discusses the significance of the PED issue and why resolution is necessary; Part III discusses the history of PED use in baseball and the efforts by the League to address it; Part IV proposes the solution of arbitration and explains how the process might work; Part V addresses potential objections to that solution; and finally, Part VI concludes

    Should Major League Baseball Players Who Used Performance Enhancing Drugs be Allowed in the Hall of Fame?

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    The National Baseball Hall of Fame is a record of all of baseball history, this includes the good, the bad, and the ugly. Steroids played an important role in baseball for more than a decade. These players were some of the most entertaining and exciting players to ever play the game and saved the game when it was needed most

    The Effectiveness of Virtual Training: Comparing Virtual and In-person Sport-Specific Cognitive Training

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    The goal of the project is to outline the benefits of different types of cognitive training with physical or in-person training compared to a virtual training implementation specifically in the context of baseball pitch recognition. By doing this we are able to identify which aspects of pitch recognition are better trained by different types of training and allow athletes to train differently and more effectively. The participants were 21 undergraduate students at Bard College who have not played at a competitive level of baseball. Participants were assigned to two conditions either in-person cognitive training or similar but virtual training. Participants were tested on both their pitch type accuracy and strike accuracy in order to compare possible differences between the training implements. participants\u27 ability to identify the correct aspects of pitch type and strike accuracy within three seconds of viewing the pitch was assessed both in person and virtually. The hypothesis is that the virtual training group will outperform the in-person group in pitch type accuracy but the in-person group will outperform the virtual group in strike accuracy. The results showed that there was no significant difference in performance for strike zone accuracy between the virtual and in-person groups but there was a marginally significant difference between the virtual and in-person training groups for pitch type accuracy

    Investigating the Transfer of Learning, Psychological, and Neural Effects in Immersive Virtual Reality

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    Achieving mastery or expertise requires a substantial amount of quality practice. Recent technological developments have introduced a novel approach to practice, virtual reality. Specifically, virtual reality offers a low-cost, customizable opportunity to practice while minimizing the risk of the individual. Given that some types of practice may not lead to the acquisition of a motor skill, or worse, lead to detriments of that skill, understanding the developing science of motor behavior in relation to virtual reality is imperative. The following literature review will begin with a brief historical account of the evolution of virtual reality. Next, some terms of virtual reality will be defined, and the technological characteristics will be introduced. Then, fundamental theories of transfer of learning and important variables which likely contribute to transfer of learning will be discussed. In the following section, the current understanding of virtual reality and motor learning will be explained. Research that has examined transfer of learning within immersive virtual reality will then be examined and discussions of the findings and limitations will be presented. Finally, to address the aforementioned shortcomings, the following project was a two-experimental study to investigate the transfer of learning effects of virtual reality motor skill practice

    Editor\u27s Note

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    We are thrilled to introduce the inaugural issue of the Bone Bulletin, DePalma Orthopaedic Society’s student-run, non-peer reviewed journal for Sidney Kimmel Medical College (SKMC) students. The journal’s aim is to provide yet another way to be involved with orthopaedics in medical school and to promote student interest in orthopaedics by reporting on diverse aspects of the field through editorial and opinion pieces. Under the close 1-on-1 mentorship of a physician from the Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, students have a hands-on opportunity to write about and directly engage with orthopaedic research and developments. Within the pages of this journal, you will find research articles, insightful reviews, thought-provoking interviews, and inspiring stories of clinical experiences. We believe that by providing an inclusive platform for students to express their ideas and share their research findings, we can foster a vibrant community of learners and thinkers dedicated to advancing the field of orthopaedic surgery. We extend our gratitude to the writers and editorial team, who have formed the contributions featured in this issue. We would also like to express our gratitude to the mentors and physicians from the Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, who have supported us throughout this journey. Your guidance, encouragement, and expertise have been invaluable in shaping this endeavor and inspiring us to pursue excellence in the field of orthopaedics. Thank you for joining us on this exciting venture. We are beyond excited to present the invaluable contributions that everyone has made for the Bone Bulletin. Sincerely,Payton Boere & Ari ClementsEditors-in-Chief, The Bone Bulleti

    Taxing the Business of Sports

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    Complete Issue - Vol. 77, No. 3 and 4

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    Minor League With a Major Issue: How Baseball\u27s Federal Antitrust Exemption has Devastated Minor League Baseball

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    In 1922, the United States Supreme Court exempted Major League Baseball (“MLB”) from the Sherman Antitrust Act in the landmark decision Federal Baseball Club of Baltimore v. National League of Professional Baseball Clubs. Despite growing criticism from the players, fans, and the courts, this exemption holds true today. Although MLB players have slowly been given greater contracting rights, minor league players have been left behind in this fight. MLB’s antitrust exemption negatively affects MiLB and allows league owners to exploit players for little salary, often forcing them to live at or below the poverty line. Poor living conditions, coupled with the Supreme Court’s recent holding in NCAA v. Alston, which allows college players to profit off of their name, image, and likeness, make college baseball an increasingly more appealing option for athletes. This Note discusses the antitrust exemption in light of NCAA v. Alston and suggests ways in which MiLB can be saved, including relinquishing MLB’s antitrust exemption and adopting a similar model to other minor league franchises to keep the minor league as a viable option whilst improving the lives of players
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