114 research outputs found

    Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate HFS-induced central plasticity of sensory processing at the level of the brain using the electroencephalogram (EEG). To this end we measured evoked potentials in response to noxious electrical pinprick-like stimuli applied in the heterotopic skin area before, directly after and 30 minutes after HFS.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We observed potential cortical electrophysiological correlates of heterotopic facilitation. Two different cortical correlates were found; the first one was a lateralized effect, i.e. a larger N100 amplitude on the conditioned arm than the control arm 30 minutes after end of HFS. This was comparable with the observed lateralized effect of visual analogue scale (VAS) scores as response to the mechanical punctate stimuli. The second correlate seems to be a more general (non-lateralized) effect, because the result affects both arms. On average for both arms the P200 amplitude increased significantly 30 minutes after end of HFS with respect to baseline.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We suggest that for studying heterotopic nociceptive facilitation the evoked brain response is suitable and relevant for investigating plasticity at the level of the brain and is perhaps a more sensitive and reliable marker than the perceived pain intensity (e.g. VAS).</p

    Central sensitization and pain hypersensitivity: Some critical considerations.

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    Since its discovery, central sensitization has gained enormous popularity. It is widely used to explain pain hypersensitivity in a wide range of clinical pain conditions. However, at present there is no general consensus on the definition of central sensitization. Moreover, the use of the term central sensitization in the clinical domain has been criticized. The aim of this paper is to foster the discussion on the definition of central sensitization and its use

    Electroencephalography: A potential valuable tool for measuring central neuroplasticity in the context of acute and persistent postoperative pain

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    Electroencephalography: A potential valuable tool for measuring central neuroplasticity in the context of acute and persistent postoperative pai

    Central sensitization: neurophysiological mechanisms

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    Since its discovery, the concept central sensitization has become increasingly popular. However, in the scientific literature central sensitization is defined and operationalized in many different ways, which seriously hampers scientific progression. The original description of central sensitization that derives from animal studies referred to a phenomenon of increased spinal excitability induced after peripheral noxious input and was thought to mediate increases in pain perception present after injury (i.e. the spread of hyperalgesia and allodynia restricted to a limited number of spinal segments). The exact spinal mechanisms underlying these forms of hyperalgesia and allodynia are yet unknown, although our understanding is rapidly growing, for example. The results of recent studies clearly indicate that hyperalgesia and allodynia do not depend on one single mechanism, but can be triggered by a range of mechanisms. More recent interpretations of central sensitization, in particular those used in the clinical domain, are broader than the original concept; central sensitization refers to a general state of central nervous system hypersensitivity that explains a variety of symptoms, including pain and non-pain symptoms (e.g. increased sensitivity to bright light, sounds and odors). We have recently argued that when central sensitization is interpreted too broadly, the chance of finding evidence of central sensitization increases. Consequently, the presence of central sensitization is established in many patients but also the heterogeneity of underlying processes/mechanisms increases. The biopsychosocial model considers that different interacting processes/mechanisms can contribute to a patient‚Äôs clinical presentation. Grouping different processes/mechanisms under the same umbrella (central sensitization) does not seem to contribute to a mechanism-based approach and may not improve ‚Äď and may even hamper ‚Äď pain management

    Pinprick-induced gamma-band oscillations are not a useful electrophysiological marker of pinprick hypersensitivity in humans: EEG dataset.

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    Here we make the raw EEG data available belonging to the publication: S. Gousset, DM. Torta, A. Mouraux, J. Lambert, EN. van den Broeke, Pinprick-induced gamma-band oscillations are not a useful electrophysiological marker of pinprick hypersensitivity in humans, Clinical Neurophysiology, 2023. The files are .set files (EEGlab). Of note, the raw EEG signals are already referenced to a nose reference. The dataset contains N=20 participants. For more information please contact the corresponding author.</p
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