137 research outputs found

    Self-Employment of Immigrants: A Cross-National Study of 17 Western Societies

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    This study examines the role of immigrants’ country of origin, country of destination and combinations thereof (settings or communities) in the likelihood of immigrants being selfemployed. I pooled census data from three classic immigrant countries (Australia, Canada and the United States) and labor-force surveys from 14 countries in the European Union for a cross-national data set. Using multilevel techniques, I find that (1) immigrants from non-Christian countries of origin have higher odds of self-employment, (2) higher levels of unemployment among natives increase the odds of self-employment, and (3) selfemployment is more frequent among immigrant communities that are small, highly educated and have a longer settlement history.

    Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective: A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

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    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants settle in (“destination” effect), the sending nation (“origin” effect), and the combination between origin and destination (“setting” or “community” effect). The authors propose a design that simultaneously observes multiple origin groups in multiple destinations. They present substantive hypotheses about language proficiency and use them to develop a series of macrolevel indicators. The authors collected and standardized 19 existing immigrant surveys for nine Western countries. Using multilevel techniques, their analyses show that origins, destinations, and settings play a significant role in immigrants’ language proficiency.

    Post-Migration Education Among Refugees in the Netherlands

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    Refugees face significant barriers in the labor markets of western countries due to limited transferability of educational credentials. Post-migration education can increase refugees’ chances in the labor market, but little is known about the prevalence and underlying patterns of such post-secondary educational investments. I contribute to the literature by analyzing survey data from the Netherlands on post-migration education among more than 3,000 adult refugees who come from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia. I find that refugees’ investments in schooling depend on both pre- and post-migration characteristics. Results show that post-migration schooling is more common among adult refugees who are higher educated, who arrived at a younger age, who have applied for recognition of their foreign education, and who have (successfully) participated in integration and/or language courses. When refugees are kept in an asylum center for a longer time, they are less likely to invest in post-migration education.</p

    Denomination, Religious Context, and Suicide: Neo-Durkheimian Multilevel Explanations Tested with Individual and Contextual Data

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    In Suicide, Durkheim found that involvement in religious communities is inversely related to suicide risk. In this article, two explanations for this relationship are examined. One is that religious networks provide support. The other is that religious communities prohibit suicide. To examine these hypotheses, individual-level data on suicide in the Netherlands from 1936 to 1973 are used. The results show that with an increase in the proportion of religious persons in a municipality, the chances of committing suicide decrease for every denomination in that municipality, as well as among nonchurch members. Furthermore, along with the secularization of Dutch society, the impact of religious composition on suicide wanes. These results contradict the network-support mechanism and confirm the notion that religious communities have a general protective effect against suicide.

    Відомості про авторів

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    We study minority language proficiency of adolescent immigrant children in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. We elaborate on theoretical mechanisms of exposure, efficiency and non-economic incentives of minority language acquisition. Using data from adolescent immigrant children in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, we find evidence for the role of exposure in that immigrant children who were born abroad were more proficient than those born in the host country. Exposure via the percentage of co-ethnics at school is positively related to minority proficiency, whereas parental proficiency in the destination language is negatively associated. Also belonging to a larger immigrant group increases exposure to the minority language and results in language retention. Efficiency in terms of cognitive abilities does not play a role. Non-economic incentives to retain the minority language, indicated by the ethnic identification of parents, is positively related to the child’s minority language proficiency and this relationship is stronger when the quality of the parent-child relationship is higher

    Bensaïdi of Veenstra? : Een experimenteel onderzoek naar discriminatie van Marokkanen in Nederland

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    In deze studie wordt gekeken naar discriminatie van Marokkanen in Nederland. Dolfing en Van Tubergen bestuderen de reacties van werkgevers op Marokkaanse en autochtone proefpersonen die over de telefoon solliciteren naar een stageplaats in het mbo en vergelijken de uitkomsten voor verschillende bedrijfstakken. Uit ons onderzoek blijkt dat Marokkanen vaker worden afgewezen voor een stageplek. De mate van discriminatie verschilt echter per bedrijfstak. Veruit de sterkste discriminatie van Marokkanen is in de bouw.