347 research outputs found

    High-resolution CT phenotypes in pulmonary sarcoidosis: a multinational Delphi consensus study

    Get PDF
    One view of sarcoidosis is that the term covers many different diseases. However, no classification framework exists for the future exploration of pathogenetic pathways, genetic or trigger predilections, patterns of lung function impairment, or treatment separations, or for the development of diagnostic algorithms or relevant outcome measures. We aimed to establish agreement on high-resolution CT (HRCT) phenotypic separations in sarcoidosis to anchor future CT research through a multinational two-round Delphi consensus process. Delphi participants included members of the Fleischner Society and the World Association of Sarcoidosis and other Granulomatous Disorders, as well as members' nominees. 146 individuals (98 chest physicians, 48 thoracic radiologists) from 28 countries took part, 144 of whom completed both Delphi rounds. After rating of 35 Delphi statements on a five-point Likert scale, consensus was achieved for 22 (63%) statements. There was 97% agreement on the existence of distinct HRCT phenotypes, with seven HRCT phenotypes that were categorised by participants as non-fibrotic or likely to be fibrotic. The international consensus reached in this Delphi exercise justifies the formulation of a CT classification as a basis for the possible definition of separate diseases. Further refinement of phenotypes with rapidly achievable CT studies is now needed to underpin the development of a formal classification of sarcoidosis

    Diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in daily practice

    Get PDF
    Background: In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) have a high prevalence and represent the main cause of death. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the currently used conventional pancreatic imaging techniques and the added value of fine needle aspirations (FNAs). Methods: Patients who had at least one imaging study were included from the population-based MEN1 database of the DutchMEN Study Group from 1990 to 2017. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), FNA, and surgical resection specimens were obtained. The first MRI, CT, or EUS was considered as the index test. For a comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of MRI versus CT, patients with their index test taken between 2010 and 2017 were included. The reference standard consisted of surgical histopathology or radiological follow-up. ResultsA total of 413 patients (92.8% of the database) underwent 3,477 imaging studies. The number of imaging studies per patient increased, and a preference for MRI was observed in the last decade. Overall diagnostic accuracy was good with a positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 88.9% (95% confidence interval, 76.0-95.6) and 92.8% (89.4-95.1), respectively, for PanNET in the pancreatic head and 92.0% (85.3-96.0) and 85.3% (80.5-89.1), respectively, in the body/tail. For MRI, PPV and NPV for pancreatic head tumors were 100% (76.1-100) and 87.1% (76.3-93.6) and for CT, 60.0% (22.9-88.4) and 70.4% (51.3-84.3), respectively. For body/tail tumors, PPV and NPV were 91.3% (72.0-98.8) and 87.0% (75.3-93.9), respectively, for MRI and 100% (74.9-100) and 77.8% (54.3-91.5), respectively, for CT. Pathology confirmed a PanNET in 106 out of 110 (96.4%) resection specimens. FNA was performed on 34 lesions in 33 patients and was considered PanNET in 24 [all confirmed PanNET by histology (10) or follow-up (14)], normal/cyst/unrepresentative in 6 (all confirmed PanNET by follow-up), and adenocarcinoma in 4 (2 confirmed and 2 PanNET). Three patients, all older than 60 years, had a final diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: As the accuracy for diagnosing MEN1-related PanNET of MRI was higher than that of CT, MRI should be the preferred (non-invasive) imaging modality for PanNET screening/surveillance. The high diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic imaging and the sporadic occurrence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma question the need for routine (EUS-guided) FNA

    DataSheet_1_Diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in daily practice.docx

    No full text
    BackgroundIn multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) have a high prevalence and represent the main cause of death. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the currently used conventional pancreatic imaging techniques and the added value of fine needle aspirations (FNAs).MethodsPatients who had at least one imaging study were included from the population-based MEN1 database of the DutchMEN Study Group from 1990 to 2017. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), FNA, and surgical resection specimens were obtained. The first MRI, CT, or EUS was considered as the index test. For a comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of MRI versus CT, patients with their index test taken between 2010 and 2017 were included. The reference standard consisted of surgical histopathology or radiological follow-up.ResultsA total of 413 patients (92.8% of the database) underwent 3,477 imaging studies. The number of imaging studies per patient increased, and a preference for MRI was observed in the last decade. Overall diagnostic accuracy was good with a positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 88.9% (95% confidence interval, 76.0–95.6) and 92.8% (89.4–95.1), respectively, for PanNET in the pancreatic head and 92.0% (85.3–96.0) and 85.3% (80.5–89.1), respectively, in the body/tail. For MRI, PPV and NPV for pancreatic head tumors were 100% (76.1–100) and 87.1% (76.3–93.6) and for CT, 60.0% (22.9–88.4) and 70.4% (51.3–84.3), respectively. For body/tail tumors, PPV and NPV were 91.3% (72.0–98.8) and 87.0% (75.3–93.9), respectively, for MRI and 100% (74.9–100) and 77.8% (54.3–91.5), respectively, for CT. Pathology confirmed a PanNET in 106 out of 110 (96.4%) resection specimens. FNA was performed on 34 lesions in 33 patients and was considered PanNET in 24 [all confirmed PanNET by histology (10) or follow-up (14)], normal/cyst/unrepresentative in 6 (all confirmed PanNET by follow-up), and adenocarcinoma in 4 (2 confirmed and 2 PanNET). Three patients, all older than 60 years, had a final diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.ConclusionAs the accuracy for diagnosing MEN1-related PanNET of MRI was higher than that of CT, MRI should be the preferred (non-invasive) imaging modality for PanNET screening/surveillance. The high diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic imaging and the sporadic occurrence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma question the need for routine (EUS-guided) FNA.</p

    A report on the potential of Rac1/pSTAT3 protein levels in T lymphocytes to assess the pharmacodynamic effect of thiopurine therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients

    No full text
    The thiopurine derivatives azathioprine (AZA), mercaptopurine (MP) and tioguanine (TG) remain standard treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The immune suppressive effect of thiopurines is primarily based on blocking the Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) causing apoptosis of T lymphocytes by inhibition of the phosphorylated downstream transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (pSTAT3). A functional pharmacodynamic marker in T lymphocytes may be useful to predict therapeutic outcome of thiopurine therapy. The aim of this study was to explore whether protein levels of Rac1 and pSTAT3 in T lymphocytes may be applied as a specific pharmacodynamic marker for thiopurine therapy in IBD patients. Rac1 and pSTAT3 protein levels in T lymphocytes were explored in 57 IBD patients (median age 51 years, 56% female), subdivided into six groups based on IBD activity and its treatment: patients with active disease without IBD maintenance medication (1) or patients in remission on AZA/MP (2), TG (3), infliximab (IFX) (4), thiopurine and IFX combination-treatment (5) or without IBD medication (6). Reference values were obtained from healthy subjects. Rac1 and pSTAT3 protein levels in T lymphocytes from patients on thiopurine monotherapy (group 2 and 3) were compared to the other groups, and to healthy subjects. Absolute Rac1 and pSTAT3 protein levels showed no differences between the thiopurine monotherapy groups when compared to patients with active disease. However, the ratio of Rac1 and pSTAT3 protein levels was lower in thiopurine patients groups compared to patients with active disease. Rac1-corrected pSTAT3 protein levels may serve as a pharmacodynamic marker of thiopurine monotherapy and may be a potential tool to predict therapeutic effectiveness in IBD patients

    Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome characterized by the triad of primary hyperparathyroidism, duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs), and pituitary tumors. Patients are confronted with substantial morbidity and are consequently at risk for an impaired quality of life (QOL). Meticulous assessment of QOL and associated factors in a representative population is needed to understand the full spectrum of the burden of the disease. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using the national Dutch MEN1 cohort. Patients with a confirmed MEN1 mutation received the SF-36 Health Related Quality of Life questionnaire and questions regarding sociodemographic and medical history. Results: A total of 227 of 285 (80%) eligible MEN1 patients returned the questionnaires. Health-related QOL scores (HRQOL) in MEN1 patients were significantly lower for the majority of subscales of the SF-36 in comparison with the general Dutch population. The most consistent predictor for HRQOL was employment status, followed by the presence of a pituitary tumor. 16% of patients harboring a pNET and 29% of patients with a pituitary tumor according to the medical records, reported that they were unaware of such a tumor. These subgroups of patients had several significant better QOL scores than patients who were aware of their pNET or pituitary tumors. Conclusion: Patients with MEN1 have an impaired QOL in comparison with the general Dutch population warranting special attention within routine care. For daily practice, physicians should be aware of their patients' impaired QOL and of the impact of unemployment on QOL

    The PRolaCT studies — a study protocol for a combined randomised clinical trial and observational cohort study design in prolactinoma

    Get PDF
    Background: First-line treatment for prolactinomas is a medical treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs), which effectively control hyperprolactinaemia in most patients, although post-withdrawal remission rates are approximately 34%. Therefore, many patients require prolonged DA treatment, while side effects negatively impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Endoscopic transsphenoidal resection is reserved for patients with severe side effects, or with DA-resistant prolactinoma. Surgery has a good safety profile and high probability of remission and may thus deserve a more prominent place in prolactinoma treatment. The hypothesis for this study is that early or upfront surgical resection is superior to DA treatment both in terms of HRQoL and remission rate in patients with a non-invasive prolactinoma of limited size. Methods: We present a combined randomised clinical trial and observational cohort study design, which comprises three unblinded randomised controlled trials (RCTs; PRolaCT-1, PRolaCT-2, PRolaCT-3), and an observational study arm (PRolaCT-O) that compare neurosurgical counselling, and potential subsequent endoscopic transsphenoidal adenoma resection, with current standard care. Patients with a non-invasive prolactinoma (&lt; 25 mm) will be eligible for one of three RCTs based on the d

    The Management of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung in MEN1: Results From the Dutch MEN1 Study Group

    Get PDF
    INTRODUCTION: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-related neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the lung are mostly indolent, with a good prognosis. Nevertheless, cases of aggressive lung NET do occur, and therefore the management of individual patients is challenging. AIM: To assess tumor growth and the survival of patients with MEN1-related lung NETs at long-term follow-up. METHODS: The population-based Dutch MEN1 Study Group database (n = 446) was used to identify lung NETs by histopathological and radiological examinations. Tumor diameter was assessed. Linear mixed models and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing tumor growth and survival. Molecular analyses were performed on a lung NET showing particularly aggressive behavior. RESULTS: In 102 patients (22.9% of the total MEN1 cohort), 164 lesions suspected of lung NETs were identified and followed for a median of 6.6 years. Tumor diameter increased 6.0% per year. The overall 15-year survival rate was 78.0% (95% confidence interval: 64.6-94.2%) without lung NET-related death. No prognostic factors for tumor growth or survival could be identified. A somatic c.3127A > G (p.Met1043Val) PIK3CA driver mutation was found in a case of rapid growing lung NET after 6 years of indolent disease, presumably explaining the sudden change in course. CONCLUSION: MEN1-related lung NETs are slow growing and have a good prognosis. No accurate risk factors for tumor growth could be identified. Lung NET screening should therefore be based on well-informed, shared decision-making, balancing between the low absolute risk of an aggressive tumor in individuals and the potential harms of frequent thoracic imaging

    αβ-T Cells Engineered to Express γδ-T Cell Receptors Can Kill Neuroblastoma Organoids Independent of MHC-I Expression

    Get PDF
    Currently ~50% of patients with a diagnosis of high-risk neuroblastoma will not survive due to relapsing or refractory disease. Recent innovations in immunotherapy for solid tumors are highly promising, but the low MHC-I expression of neuroblastoma represents a major challenge for T cell-mediated immunotherapy. Here, we propose a novel T cell-based immunotherapy approach for neuroblastoma, based on the use of TEG002, αβ-T cells engineered to express a defined γδ-T cell receptor, which can recognize and kill target cells independent of MHC-I. In a co-culture killing assay, we showed that 3 out of 6 neuroblastoma organoids could activate TEG002 as measured by IFNγ production. Transcriptional profiling showed this effect correlates with an increased activity of processes involved in interferon signaling and extracellular matrix organization. Analysis of the dynamics of organoid killing by TEG002 over time confirmed that organoids which induced TEG002 activation were efficiently killed independent of their MHC-I expression. Of note, efficacy of TEG002 treatment was superior to donor-matched untransduced αβ-T cells or endogenous γδ-T cells. Our data suggest that TEG002 may be a promising novel treatment option for a subset of neuroblastoma patients

    Initiating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (pNET) screening in young MEN1 patients:results from the DutchMEN Study Group

    Get PDF
    Context: Nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs) are highly prevalent and constitute an important cause of mortality in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Still, the optimal age to initiate screening for pNETs is under debate. Objective: The aim of this work is to assess the age of occurrence of clinically relevant NF-pNETs in young MEN1 patients. Methods: Pancreatic imaging data of MEN1 patients were retrieved from the DutchMEN Study Group database. Interval-censored survival methods were used to describe age-related penetrance, compare survival curves, and develop a parametric model for estimating the risk of having clinically relevant NF-pNET at various ages. The primary objective was to assess age at occurrence of clinically relevant NF-pNET (size ≥†20 mm or rapid growth); secondary objectives were the age at occurrence of NF-pNET of any size and pNET-associated metastasized disease. Results: Five of 350 patients developed clinically relevant NF-pNETs before age 18 years, 2 of whom subsequently developed lymph node metastases. No differences in clinically relevant NF-pNET-free survival were found for sex, time frame, and type of MEN1 diagnosis or genotype. The estimated ages (median, 95% CI) at a 1%, 2.5%, and 5% risk of having developed a clinically relevant tumor are 9.5 (6.5-12.7), 13.5 (10.2-16.9), and 17.8 years (14.3-21.4), respectively. Conclusion: Analyses from this population-based cohort indicate that start of surveillance for NF-pNETs with pancreatic imaging at age 13 to 14 years is justified. The psychological and medical burden of screening at a young age should be considered

    αβ-T Cells Engineered to Express γδ-T Cell Receptors Can Kill Neuroblastoma Organoids Independent of MHC-I Expression

    Get PDF
    Currently ~50% of patients with a diagnosis of high-risk neuroblastoma will not survive due to relapsing or refractory disease. Recent innovations in immunotherapy for solid tumors are highly promising, but the low MHC-I expression of neuroblastoma represents a major challenge for T cell-mediated immunotherapy. Here, we propose a novel T cell-based immunotherapy approach for neuroblastoma, based on the use of TEG002, αβ-T cells engineered to express a defined γδ-T cell receptor, which can recognize and kill target cells independent of MHC-I. In a co-culture killing assay, we showed that 3 out of 6 neuroblastoma organoids could activate TEG002 as measured by IFNγ production. Transcriptional profiling showed this effect correlates with an increased activity of processes involved in interferon signaling and extracellular matrix organization. Analysis of the dynamics of organoid killing by TEG002 over time confirmed that organoids which induced TEG002 activation were efficiently killed independent of their MHC-I expression. Of note, efficacy of TEG002 treatment was superior to donor-matched untransduced αβ-T cells or endogenous γδ-T cells. Our data suggest that TEG002 may be a promising novel treatment option for a subset of neuroblastoma patients
    corecore