250 research outputs found

    The impact of weather on time allocation to physical activity and sleep of child-parent dyads

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    Purpose: Previous studies showed that unfavourable weather conditions discourage physical activity. However, it remains unclear whether unfavourable weather conditions have a differential impact on physical activity in children compared with adults. We aim to explore the differential impact of weather on time allocation to physical activity and sleep by children and their parents. Method: We use nationally representative data with time use indicators objectively measured on multiple occasions for >1100 Australian pairs of 12–13-year-old children and their middle-aged parents, coupled with daily meteorological data. We employ an individual fixed effects regression model to estimate the causal impact of weather. Results: We find that unfavourable weather conditions, as measured by cold or hot temperatures or rain, cause children to reduce moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity time and increase sedentary time. However, such weather conditions have little impact on children's sleep time or the time allocation of their parents. We also find substantial differential weather impact, especially on children's time allocation, by weekdays/weekends and parental employment status, suggesting that these factors may contribute to explaining the differential weather impact that we observed. Our results additionally provide evidence of adaptation, as temperature appears to have a more pronounced impact on time allocation in colder months and colder regions. Conclusion: Our finding of a negative impact of unfavourable weather conditions on the time allocated to physical activity by children indicates a need to design policies to encourage them to be more physically active on days with unfavourable weather conditions and hence improve child health and wellbeing. Evidence of a more pronounced and negative impact on the time allocated to physical activity by children than their parents suggests that extreme weather conditions, including those associated with climate change, could make children vulnerable to reduced physical activity

    Western Australian adolescent emotional wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020

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    Background: The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been vast and are not limited to physical health. Many adolescents have experienced disruptions to daily life, including changes in their school routine and family’s financial or emotional security, potentially impacting their emotional wellbeing. In low COVID-19 prevalence settings, the impact of isolation has been mitigated for most young people through continued face-to-face schooling, yet there may still be significant impacts on their wellbeing that could be attributed to the pandemic. Methods: We report on data from 32,849 surveys from Year 7–12 students in 40 schools over two 2020 survey cycles (June/July: 19,240; October: 13,609), drawn from a study of 79 primary and secondary schools across Western Australia, Australia. The Child Health Utility Index (CHU9D) was used to measure difficulties and distress in responding secondary school students only. Using comparable Australian data collected six years prior to the pandemic, the CHU9D was calibrated against the Kessler-10 to establish a reliable threshold for CHU9D-rated distress. Results: Compared to 14% of responding 12–18-year-olds in 2013/2014, in both 2020 survey cycles almost 40% of secondary students returned a CHU9D score above a threshold indicative of elevated difficulties and distress. Student distress increased significantly between June and October 2020. Female students, those in older Grades, those with few friendships or perceived poor quality friendships, and those with poor connectedness to school were more likely to score above the threshold. Conclusions: In a large dataset collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of secondary school students with scores indicative of difficulties and distress was substantially higher than a 2013/2014 benchmark, and distress increased as the pandemic progressed, despite the low local prevalence of COVID-19. This may indicate a general decline in social and emotional wellbeing exacerbated by the events of the pandemic

    International comparisons of emotionally reactive problems in preschoolers : CBCL/11/2-5 findings from 21 societies

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    Our goal was to conduct international comparisons of emotion regulation using the 9-item Emotionally Reactive (ER) syndrome of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11/2-5. We analyzed parent ratings for 17,964 preschoolers from 21 societies, which were grouped into 8 GLOBE study culture clusters (e.g., Nordic, Confucian Asian). Omnicultural broad base rates for ER items ranged from 8.0% to 38.8%. Rank ordering for mean item ratings varied widely across societies (omnicultural Q = .50) but less so across culture clusters (M Q = .66). Societal similarity in mean item rank ordering varied by culture cluster, with large within-cluster similarity for Anglo (Q = .96), Latin Europe (Q = .74), Germanic (Q = .77), and Latin American (Q = .76) clusters, but smaller within-cluster similarity for Nordic, Eastern Europe, and Confucian Asian clusters (Qs = .52, .23, and .44, respectively). Confirmatory factor analyses of the ER syndrome supported configural invariance for all 21 societies. All 9 items showed full to approximate metric invariance, but only 3 items showed approximate scalar invariance. The ER syndrome correlated . 65 with the Anxious/Depressed (A/D) syndrome and .63 with the Aggressive Behavior syndrome. ER items varied in base rates and factor loadings, and societies varied in rank ordering of items as low, medium, or high in mean ratings. Item rank order similarity among societies in the same culture cluster varied widely across culture clusters, suggesting the importance of cultural factors in the assessment of emotion regulation in preschoolers

    Child Health CheckPoint: cohort summary and methodology of a physical health and biospecimen module for the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

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    OBJECTIVES: 'Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children' (LSAC) is Australia's only nationally representative children's longitudinal study, focusing on social, economic, physical and cultural impacts on health, learning, social and cognitive development. LSAC's first decade collected wide-ranging repeated psychosocial and administrative data; here, we describe the Child Health CheckPoint, LSAC's dedicated biophysical module. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: LSAC recruited a cross-sequential sample of 5107 infants aged 0-1 year and a sample of 4983 children aged 4-5 years in 2004, since completing seven biennial visits. CheckPoint was a cross-sectional wave that travelled Australia in 2015-2016 to reach LSAC's younger cohort at ages 11-12 years between LSAC waves 6 and 7. Parent-child pairs participated in comprehensive assessments at 15 Assessment Centres nationwide or, if unable to attend, a shorter home visit. MEASURES: CheckPoint's intergenerational, multidimensional measures were prioritised to show meaningful variation within normal ranges and capture non-communicable disease (NCD) phenotype precursors. These included anthropometry, physical activity, fitness, time use, vision, hearing, and cardiovascular, respiratory and bone health. Biospecimens included blood, saliva, buccal swabs (also from second parent), urine, hair and toenails. The epidemiology and parent-child concordance of many measures are described in separate papers. RESULTS: 1874 (54% of eligible) parent-child pairs and 1051 second parents participated. Participants' geographical distribution mirrored the broader Australian population; however, mean socioeconomic position and parental education were higher and fewer reported non-English-speaking or Indigenous backgrounds. Application of survey weights partially mitigates that the achieved sample is less population representative than previous waves of LSAC due to non-random attrition. Completeness was uniformly high for phenotypic data (>92% of eligible), biospecimens (74%-97%) and consent (genetic analyses 98%, accessing neonatal blood spots 97%, sharing 96%). CONCLUSIONS: CheckPoint enriches LSAC to study how NCDs develop at the molecular and phenotypic levels before overt disease emerges, and clarify the underlying dimensionality of health in childhood and mid-adulthood

    International Comparisons of the Dysregulation Profile Based on Reports by Parents, Adolescents, and Teachers

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    Our objective was to examine international similarities and differences in the Dysregulation Profile (DP) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and Youth Self-Report (YSR) via comparisons of data from many societies. Primary samples were those studied by Rescorla et al. (2012): CBCL: N = 69,866, 42 societies; YSR: N = 38,070, 34 societies; TRF: N = 37,244, 27 societies. Omnicultural Q correlations of items composing the DP (from the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndromes) indicated considerable consistency across diverse societies with respect to which of the DP items tended to receive low, medium, or high ratings, whether ratings were provided by parents (M Q = .70), adolescents (M Q = .72), or teachers (M Q = .68). Omnicultural mean item ratings indicated that, for all 3 forms, the most common items on the DP reflect a mix of problems from all 3 constituent scales. Cross-informant analyses for the CBCL-YSR and CBCL-TRF supported these results. Aggregated DP scores, derived by summing ratings on all DP items, varied significantly by society. Age and gender differences were minor for all 3 forms, but boys scored higher than girls on the TRF. Many societies differing in ethnicity, religion, political/economic system, and geographical region manifested very similar DP scores. The most commonly reported DP problems reflected the mixed symptom picture of the DP, with dysregulation in mood, attention, and aggression. Overall, societies were more similar than different on DP scale scores and item ratings

    International comparisons of autism spectrum disorder behaviors in preschoolers rated by parents and caregivers/teachers

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    This study tested international similarities and differences in scores on a scale comprising 12 items identified by international mental health experts as being very consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) category of autism spectrum disorder. Participants were 19,850 preschoolers in 24 societies rated by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11/2-5; 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies rated by caregivers/teachers on the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form, and 7380 children from 13 societies rated by both types of informant. Rank ordering of the items with respect to base rates and mean ratings was more similar across societies for parent ratings than caregiver/teacher ratings, especially with respect to the items tapping restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Items 80. Strange behavior; 63. Repeatedly rocks head or body; 67. Seems unresponsive to affection; and 98. Withdrawn, doesn't get involved with others had low base rates in these population samples across societies and types of informants, suggesting that they may be particularly discriminating for identifying autism spectrum disorder in young children. Cross-informant agreement was stronger for the items tapping social communication and interaction problems than restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. The findings support the feasibility of international use of the scale for autism spectrum disorder screening in population samples.University of Vermont(undefined

    International comparisons of emotionally reactive problems in preschoolers: CBCL/11/2-5 findings from 21 societies

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    Our goal was to conduct international comparisons of emotion regulation using the 9-item Emotionally Reactive (ER) syndrome of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 11/2-5. We analyzed parent ratings for 17,964 preschoolers from 21 societies, which were grouped into 8 GLOBE study culture clusters (e.g., Nordic, Confucian Asian). Omnicultural broad base rates for ER items ranged from 8.0% to 38.8%. Rank ordering for mean item ratings varied widely across societies (omnicultural Q = .50) but less so across culture clusters (M Q = .66). Societal similarity in mean item rank ordering varied by culture cluster, with large within-cluster similarity for Anglo (Q = .96), Latin Europe (Q = .74), Germanic (Q = .77), and Latin American (Q = .76) clusters, but smaller within-cluster similarity for Nordic, Eastern Europe, and Confucian Asian clusters (Qs = .52, .23, and .44, respectively). Confirmatory factor analyses of the ER syndrome supported configural invariance for all 21 societies. All 9 items showed full to approximate metric invariance, but only 3 items showed approximate scalar invariance. The ER syndrome correlated . 65 with the Anxious/Depressed (A/D) syndrome and .63 with the Aggressive Behavior syndrome. ER items varied in base rates and factor loadings, and societies varied in rank ordering of items as low, medium, or high in mean ratings. Item rank order similarity among societies in the same culture cluster varied widely across culture clusters, suggesting the importance of cultural factors in the assessment of emotion regulation in preschoolers

    Aboriginal mothers in prison in Australia: a study of social, emotional and physical wellbeing

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    © 2019 The Authors Objective: To describe the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of Aboriginal mothers in prison. Methods: Cross-sectional survey, including a Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (5-item version) administered to Aboriginal women who self-identified as mothers. Results: Seventy-seven Aboriginal mothers in New South Wales (NSW) and 84 in Western Australia (WA) participated in the study. Eighty-three per cent (n=59) of mothers in NSW were in prison for drug-related offences, 64.8% (n=46) of mothers in WA were in prison for offences committed under the influence of alcohol. Sixty-eight per cent (n=52) of mothers in NSW and 35% (n=28) of mothers in WA reported mental health problems. Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) component scores of SF-12 varied for mothers in NSW and WA. Mothers in NSW experienced poorer health and functioning than mothers in WA (NSW: PCS 49.5, MCS 40.6; WA: PCS 54.4, MCS 48.3) and high levels of psychological distress (NSW: 13.1; WA 10.1). Conclusions: Aboriginal mothers in prison have significant health needs associated with physical and mental health, and psychological distress. Implications for public health: Adoption of social and emotional wellbeing as an explanatory framework for culturally secure healthcare in prison is essential to improving health outcomes of Aboriginal mothers in prison in Australia
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