250 research outputs found

    Increasing the genetic uniformity of bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson)] by means of spontaneous diploidization of gynogenetically activated eggs

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    Three groups of gynogenetic diploid bighead carp were successfully obtained by means of artificial gynogenesis. The activation rates of gynogenesis varied from 75.9% to 98.8%, and the frequency of spontaneous diploidization was around 0.4%. Over 2000 normally gynogenetic diploid fry were obtained in three gynogenetic groups. The haploid karyotype consisted of nine metacentric, 12 submetacentric, three subtelocentric chromosomes and 45 arms. The chromosome number was 48 from gynogenetic diploid. The results showed that the genetic material of offspring was maternal. The aneuploid hybrid embryos of bighead carp and Xingguo red common carp with chromosome numbers ranging from 28 to 73 did not survive post hatch, likely the result of incompatibility between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of two parents. Sixty RAPD primers from three groups were used for total DNA amplification of gynogenetic offspring, maternal and 'paternal' fish. A total of 451 bands were amplified from three kinds of samples above. From maternal bighead carp, 256 bands were amplified; however, there were 251 shared bands between maternal and gynogenetic bighead carp. From artificial gynogenetic offspring, two 'paternal' DNA segments without an expression function were found. An UPGMA tree showed that gynogenetic offspring were closely clustered and the genetic identity among them was very high (0.956).Three groups of gynogenetic diploid bighead carp were successfully obtained by means of artificial gynogenesis. The activation rates of gynogenesis varied from 75.9% to 98.8%, and the frequency of spontaneous diploidization was around 0.4%. Over 2000 normally gynogenetic diploid fry were obtained in three gynogenetic groups. The haploid karyotype consisted of nine metacentric, 12 submetacentric, three subtelocentric chromosomes and 45 arms. The chromosome number was 48 from gynogenetic diploid. The results showed that the genetic material of offspring was maternal. The aneuploid hybrid embryos of bighead carp and Xingguo red common carp with chromosome numbers ranging from 28 to 73 did not survive post hatch, likely the result of incompatibility between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of two parents. Sixty RAPD primers from three groups were used for total DNA amplification of gynogenetic offspring, maternal and 'paternal' fish. A total of 451 bands were amplified from three kinds of samples above. From maternal bighead carp, 256 bands were amplified; however, there were 251 shared bands between maternal and gynogenetic bighead carp. From artificial gynogenetic offspring, two 'paternal' DNA segments without an expression function were found. An UPGMA tree showed that gynogenetic offspring were closely clustered and the genetic identity among them was very high (0.956)

    Modeling and Analysis of Truck Mounted Concrete Pump Boom by Virtual Prototyping

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    By far there is lack of research on different working conditions between rigid and flexible dynamics of truck mounted concrete pump booms. First a 3D model has been established by using virtual prototyping technology of a 37 m long boom in Pro/Engineering software. Then the rigid body simulation model has been built. Next modal superimposition method is adopted to change the 4 rigid body booms into flexible ones. Kinematics law and dynamic characteristics of 4 common working conditions had been studied then. Next tip displacement and the first boom hydraulic cylinder force of the 4 working conditions between rigid and flexible models have been researched. Furthermore the first natural frequencies of the structure have been calculated. The results show that the frequency of the horizontal condition has the lowest of all and the roof condition has the largest of all. Besides the cylinder forces of the flexible model are larger than the corresponding rigid ones because of the flexible boom vibration. Finally an experiment has been done on a boom test rig which proved that the established simulation model is reasonable and the frequency results are correct. All of these provide design reference to mechanical manipulator as well as reducing product development cost of such mechanism

    The genome of\u3ci\u3e Orychophragmus\u3c/i\u3e violaceus provides genomic insights into the evolution of Brassicaceaepolyploidizationandits distinct traits

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    Orychophragmus violaceus, referred to as ‘‘eryuelan’’ (February orchid) in China, is an early-flowering ornamental plant. The high oil content and abundance of unsaturated fatty acids in O. violaceus seeds make it a potential high-quality oilseed crop. Here, we generated a whole-genome assembly for O. violaceus using Nanopore and Hi-C sequencing technologies. The assembled genome of O. violaceus was ~1.3 Gb in size, with 12 pairs of chromosomes. Through investigation of ancestral genome evolution, we determined that the genome of O. violaceus experienced a tetraploidization event from a diploid progenitor with the translocated proto-Calepineae karyotype. Comparisons between the reconstructed subgenomes of O. violaceus identified indicators of subgenome dominance, indicating that subgenomes likely originated via allotetraploidy. O. violaceus was phylogenetically close to the Brassica genus, and tetraploidy in O. violaceus occurred approximately 8.57 million years ago, close in time to the whole-genome triplication of Brassica that likely arose via an intermediate tetraploid lineage. However, the tetraploidization in Orychophragmus was independent of the hexaploidization in Brassica, as evidenced by the results from detailed phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of the break and fusion points of ancestral genomic blocks. Moreover, identification of multi-copy genes regulating the production of high-quality oil highlighted the contributions of both tetraploidization and tandem duplication to functional innovation in O. violaceus. These findings provide novel insights into the polyploidization evolution of plant species and will promote both functional genomic studies and domestication/breeding efforts in O. violaceus
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