19 research outputs found

    Low Rank Properties for Estimating Microphones Start Time and Sources Emission Time

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    The absence of unknown timing information about the microphones recording start time and the sources emission time presents a challenge in several applications, including joint microphones and sources localization. Compared with traditional optimization methods that try to estimate unknown timing information directly, low rank property (LRP) contains an additional low rank structure that facilitates a linear constraint of unknown timing information for formulating corresponding low rank structure information, enabling the achievement of global optimal solutions of unknown timing information with suitable initialization. However, the initialization of unknown timing information is random, resulting in local minimal values for estimation of the unknown timing information. In this paper, we propose a combined low rank approximation method to alleviate the effect of random initialization on the estimation of unknown timing information. We define three new variants of LRP supported by proof that allows unknown timing information to benefit from more low rank structure information. Then, by utilizing the low rank structure information from both LRP and proposed variants of LRP, four linear constraints of unknown timing information are presented. Finally, we use the proposed combined low rank approximation algorithm to obtain global optimal solutions of unknown timing information through the four available linear constraints. Experimental results demonstrate superior performance of our method compared to state-of-the-art approaches in terms of recovery rate (the number of successful initialization for any configuration), convergency rate (the number of successfully recovered configurations), and estimation errors of unknown timing information.Comment: 13 pages for main content; 9 pages for proof of proposed low rank properties; 13 figure

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∌99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∌1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead

    Warming in Cold Seasons Increases the Abundance of Ground-Dwelling Collembola in Permafrost Wetlands

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    The consideration of environmental factors has long been crucial to developing theories about the spatial variability of species diversity. However, the effects of global warming on Collembola, in permafrost wetlands, are largely unknown. Understanding how Collembola are affected by climate warming is important as they directly affect the community assembly and decomposition processes of plant litter within soil ecosystems. A peatland area in a cold temperate monsoon climate zone in the Great Hing’an Mountains of Northeast China was selected as the study area. Collembola were captured using an aspirator after five years of simulated warming using open top chambers (OTCs). Sampling in different growth seasons showed different characteristics in the control (CK) and warming (OTCs) treatment. Further, the results showed that (1) warming treatment increased the species richness and abundance of Collembola in the different seasons, except in May, (2) warming increased Collembola abundance in permafrost wetlands, and the warming effect was more significant during the cold season (about eight times in April), (3) species composition differed significantly in the control and warming treatment in May and September, and (4) the Collembola species composition in permafrost wetlands was mainly determined by air humidity, indicating different responses of Collembola species to the indirect effect of warming on water availability. We found that warming was the primary factor positively affecting the abundance of Collembola. An increase of Collembola abundance and community alteration to warming could have profound cascading effects on the microbes and plants they feed on in permafrost wetlands

    Flurochloridone Induced Cell Apoptosis via ER Stress and eIF2α-ATF4/ATF6-CHOP-Bim/Bax Signaling Pathways in Mouse TM4 Sertoli Cells

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    Flurochloridone (FLC), as a novel herbicide, has been widely used in many countries since 1980s. Current studies have shown that FLC has toxic effects on male reproduction and its target organ is testis, while the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Mouse testis Sertoli cell line TM4 cells were used as an in vitro model and treated with FLC at different doses (40, 80, 160 μM) for different times (6, 12, 24 h). Cell viability, cytotoxicity and apoptotic cells were detected by CCK-8 assay, LDH leakage assay and flow cytometry. The protein levels of GRP78, phosphorylated-eIF2α, ATF4, ATF6, CHOP, Bim and Bax were observed by Western Blot and Immunofluorescence staining. FLC inhibited cell viability and induced cytotoxicity in dose-dependent way in TM4 cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells were 6.2% ± 0.6%, 7.3% ± 0.3%, 9.8% ± 0.4%, 13.2% ± 0.2%, respectively. The expression levels of ER stress and UPR related proteins were activated over dose. Meanwhile, the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bim and Bax) were also up-regulated in dose-dependent. After pretreated with ISRIB, the inhibitor of eIF2α phosphorylation, the elevated expression of GRP78, phosphorylated-eIF2α, ATF4, ATF6, CHOP and Bim was down to normal level accordingly. In conclusion, FLC induced apoptosis in TM4 cells mediated by UPR signaling pathways

    Therapeutic role of human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in treating hair loss

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    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a paracrine hormone that plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. HGF secreted by mesenchymal cells affects many properties of epithelial cells, such as proliferation, motility, and morphology. HGF has been reported to promote follicular growth. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic role of HGF in hair loss treatment. A recombinant vector containing the human HGF (hHGF) gene (pTARGET-hHGF) was constructed, and the expression of hHGF in vitro was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. The effect of hHGF on hair growth was tested in mice, and results demonstrated that pTARGET-hHGF was successfully delivered into fibroblasts in vitro leading to a high expression of hHGF. Local injections of the pTARGET-hHGF recombinant vector into mice resulted in multiple beneficial effects compared to placebo, including faster hair regeneration, improved follicle development, and significantly increased HGF receptor (HGF-R). In conclusion, we have established a nonviral vector of hHGF which could be utilized to manipulate the sheath fibroblasts surrounding hair follicles (HF), thereby stimulating hair regeneration

    Combination of dynamic pH junction with capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for the determination of systemins in plant samples

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    Systemin is an important group of plant peptide hormones participating in the regulation of plant defensive responses. An improved method, based on dynamic pH junction and capillary electrophoresis-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was developed for online enrichment and sensitive determination of trace systemins in plants. After optimization, the online enrichment factors for six target systemins ranged from 90- to 127-fold. The detection limits reached lower than 0.5 nM, which were comparable with the sensitivity of LC-MS method. Satisfactory quantitative results were obtained in terms of linearity (R-2 >= 0.993), dynamic range (3-120 ng/mL), and reproducibility (<= 6.7%). For the analysis of real plant samples, a rapid sample preparation method was developed, using two steps of SPE purification with different retention and separation mechanisms. Finally, this method realized the successful detection of tomato systemin and tobacco hydroxyproline-rich systemin I from plant leaves with shorter analysis time

    Spatiotemporal cytoskeleton organizations determine morphogenesis of multicellular trichomes in tomato.

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    Plant trichomes originate from epidermal cell, forming protective structure from abiotic and biotic stresses. Different from the unicellular trichome in Arabidopsis, tomato trichomes are multicellular structure and can be classified into seven different types based on cell number, shape and the presence of glandular cells. Despite the importance of tomato trichomes in insect resistance, our understanding of the tomato trichome morphogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed morphological traits of trichomes in tomato and further performed live imaging of cytoskeletons in stably transformed lines with actin and microtubule markers. At different developmental stages, two types of cytoskeletons exhibited distinct patterns in different trichome cells, ranging from transverse, spiral to longitudinal. This gradual transition of actin filament angle from basal to top cells could correlate with the spatial expansion mode in different cells. Further genetic screen for aberrant trichome morphology led to the discovery of a number of independent mutations in SCAR/WAVE and ARP2/3 complex, which resulted in actin bundling and distorted trichomes. Disruption of microtubules caused isotropic expansion while abolished actin filaments entirely inhibited axial extension of trichomes, indicating that microtubules and actin filaments may control distinct aspects of trichome cell expansion. Our results shed light on the roles of cytoskeletons in the formation of multicellular structure of tomato trichomes

    A Green and Efficient Method for the Preconcentration and Determination of Gallic Acid, Bergenin, Quercitrin, and Embelin from Ardisia japonica

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    A simple cloud point preconcentration method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin in Ardisia japonica by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultrasonic assisted micellar extraction. Nonionic surfactant Genapol X-080 was selected as the extraction solvent. The effects of various experimental conditions such as the type and concentration of surfactant and salt, temperature, and solution pH on the extraction of these components were studied to optimize the conditions of Ardisia japonica. The solution was incubated in a thermostatic water bath at 60°C for 10 min, and 35% NaH2PO4 (w/v) was added to the solution to promote the phase separation and increase the preconcentration factor. The intraday and interday precision (RSD) were both below 5.0% and the limits of detection (LOD) for the analytes were between 10 and 20 ng·mL−1. The proposed method provides a simple, efficient, and organic solvent-free method to analyze gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin for the quality control of Ardisia japonica

    Gcn5 and SAGA regulate shelterin protein turnover and telomere maintenance.

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    International audienceHistone acetyltransferases (HATs) play important roles in gene regulation and DNA repair by influencing the accessibility of chromatin to transcription factors and repair proteins. Here, we show that deletion of Gcn5 leads to telomere dysfunction in mouse and human cells. Biochemical studies reveal that depletion of Gcn5 or ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (Usp22), which is another bona fide component of the Gcn5-containing SAGA complex, increases ubiquitination and turnover of TRF1, a primary component of the telomeric shelterin complex. Inhibition of the proteasome or overexpression of USP22 opposes this effect. The USP22 deubiquitinating module requires association with SAGA complexes for activity, and we find that depletion of Gcn5 compromises this association in mammalian cells. Thus, our results indicate that Gcn5 regulates TRF1 levels through effects on Usp22 activity and SAGA integrity