279 research outputs found

    Gas Chromatographic-Ion Mobility Spectrometry Combined with Chemometrics to Study the Changes in Characteristic Odor Components of Galli gigerii Endothelium Corneum in Different Processing Methods

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    Galli gigerii endothelium corneum (GGEC) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in clinical practice to treat various conditions such as indigestion, vomiting, spermatorrhea, and enuresis. In this study, the volatile components of different concoctions of GGEC were examined by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), and the changes of the components were compared by fingerprinting, combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to analyze the main volatile components and find out the different markers that can distinguish the different concoctions of GGEC. In the result, the GC-IMS fingerprints of GGEC and its different concoctions showed differences in their volatile components, of which 49 volatiles were clearly characterized, with some components including monomers and dimers. The characteristic volatile components of raw GGEC (SP) were n-nonanal, (E)-2-octenal, beta-ocimene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, etc. The characteristic volatile components of stir-fried GGEC (QC) are heptanal, 2-octanol, (E)-2-heptenal, etc. The characteristic volatile components of sand ironing GGEC (ST) are isoamyl acetate, decanal, cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl pyrazine, etc. The characteristic volatile components of stir-fried GGEC with vinegar (CZ) are thiazole, linalool, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, etc. The characteristic volatile components of stir-fried GGEC with milk (FH) are 2-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, butyl acetate, etc. By chemometric analysis, components such as n-nonanal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-pentyl-furan, butanal, 1,4-dioxane, and 2-methylpropanoic acid could be used as difference markers to distinguish different concoction products of GGEC. Furthermore, by analyzing different volatile compounds, we can examine the changes in volatile components during processing of GGEC, which can provide experimental data for the identification and establishment of quality standards

    CAID prediction portal: a comprehensive service for predicting intrinsic disorder and binding regions in proteins

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    International audienceIntrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins is well-established in structural biology, with increasing evidence for its involvement in essential biological processes. As measuring d ynamic ID beha vior e xperimentall y on a large scale remains difficult, scores of published ID predictor s ha ve tried to fill this gap. Unfortunatel y, their heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare perf ormance, conf ounding biologists wanting to make an informed choice. To address this issue, the Critical Assessment of protein Intrinsic Disorder (CAID) benchmarks predictors for ID and binding regions as a community blind-test in a standardized computing environment. Here we present the CAID Prediction Portal, a web server executing all CAID methods on user-defined sequences. The server generates standardized output and facilitates comparison between methods, producing a consensus prediction highlighting high-confidence ID regions. The website contains extensive documentation explaining the meaning of different CAID statistics and providing a brief description of all methods. Predictor output is visualized in an interactive feature viewer and made available for download in a single table, with the option to recover previous sessions via a priv ate dashboar d. The CAID Prediction Portal is a valuable resource for researchers interested in studying ID in proteins. The server is available at the URL: https://caid.idpcentral.org

    Monthly mini-dose rituximab for primary anti-PLA2R-positive membranous nephropathy: a personalized approach

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    Abstract Background The currently recommended dose of rituximab for primary membranous nephropathy is as high as that for lymphoma. However, the clinical manifestations of membranous nephropathy vary widely. Therefore, achieving individualized treatment is a topic that needs to be explored. This study assessed the efficacy of monthly mini-dose rituximab monotherapy in patients with primary membranous nephropathy. Methods This retrospective study included 32 patients with primary membranous nephropathy treated at Peking University Third Hospital between March 2019 and January 2023. All patients were anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibody-positive and received rituximab 100 mg intravenously monthly for at least 3 months without other immunosuppressive therapy. Rituximab infusions were sustained until either remission of the nephrotic syndrome or a minimum serum anti-PLA2R titer ˂ 2 RU/mL was achieved. Results The baseline parameters included: proteinuria, 8.5 ± 3.6 g/day; serum albumin, 24.8 ± 3.4 g/L; and anti-PLA2R antibody, 160 (20–2659) RU/mL. B-cell depletion was achieved in 87.5% patients after the first dose of rituximab 100 mg and in 100% after the second equivalent dose. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 18–38). Twenty-seven (84%) patients achieved remission, with 11 (34%) patients achieving complete remission by last follow-up. The relapse-free survival from the last infusion was 13.5 months (range 3–27). Patients were stratified into the low-titer (< 150 RU/mL, n = 17) and high-titer groups (≥ 150 RU/mL, n = 15) based on the anti-PLA2R titer. Sex, age, urinary proteins, serum albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline did not differ significantly between the two groups. At 18 months, compared to the low-titer group, the rituximab dose (960 ± 387 vs 694 ± 270 mg, p = 0.030) was higher, while serum albumin (37.0 ± 5.4 vs 41.3 ± 5.4 g/L, p = 0.033) and the complete remission rate (13% vs 53%, p = 0.000) were both lower in the high-titer group. Conclusions Monthly rituximab 100 mg appeared as a potential effective regimen for treating anti-PLA2R-associated primary membranous nephropathy with a low anti-PLA2R titer. The lower the anti-PLA2R titer, the lower the rituximab dose required to achieve remission. Trial registration A retrospective study, registered at ChiCTR (ChiCTR2200057381) on March 10, 2022

    Efficacy and safety of Danlou tablets in traditional Chinese medicine for coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BackgroundDanlou tablets exert auxiliary advantages in treating coronary heart disease (CHD), but a summary of evidence-based proof is lacking. This study aims to systematically evaluate Danlou tablets in treating CHD from two aspects, including efficacy and safety.MethodsBy a thorough retrieval of the four English databases, namely, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science, and the four Chinese databases, namely, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP database, and China Biomedical Literature Service System, we found all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to Danlou tablets in treating CHD. The retrieval time was from the construction of the database to April 2022. We engaged two researchers to screen the studies, extract the required data, and assess the risk of bias. We then used RevMan5.3 and STATA.14 software to conduct a meta-analysis. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to evaluate the quality of outcome indicators.ResultsSeventeen RCTs involving 1,588 patients were included. The meta-analysis results are displayed as follows: clinical treatment effect [risk ratio (RR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.28, P &lt; 0.00001], angina pectoris duration [MD = −0.2.15, 95% CI: −2.91, −1.04, P &lt; 0.00001], angina pectoris frequency [standard mean difference (SMD) = −2.48, 95% CI: −3.42, −1.54, P &lt; 0.00001], angina pectoris degree [SMD = −0.96, 95% CI: −1.39, −0.53, P &lt; 0.0001], TC [MD = −0.71, 95% CI: −0.92, −0.51, P &lt; 0.00001], TG [MD = −0.38, 95% CI: −0.53, −0.22, P &lt; 0.00001], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD = −0.64, 95% CI: −0.76, −0.51, P &lt; 0.00001], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.21, P &lt; 0.00001], and adverse events [RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.88, P = 0.02].ConclusionThe current evidence suggests that the combination of Danlou tablets and Western medicine can enhance the efficacy of CHD and does not increase adverse events. However, because of the limited number and quality of the included studies, the results of our study should be treated with caution. Further large-scale RCTs are necessary to verify the benefits of this approach

    Isopropoxy Benzene Guanidine Ameliorates <i>Streptococcus suis</i> Infection In Vivo and In Vitro

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    Streptococcus suis, an encapsulated zoonotic pathogen, has been reported to cause a variety of infectious diseases, such as meningitis and streptococcal-toxic-shock-like syndrome. Increasing antimicrobial resistance has triggered the need for new treatments. In the present study, we found that isopropoxy benzene guanidine (IBG) significantly attenuated the effects caused by S. suis infection, in vivo and in vitro, by killing S. suis and reducing S. suis pathogenicity. Further studies showed that IBG disrupted the integrity of S. suis cell membranes and increased the permeability of S. suis cell membranes, leading to an imbalance in proton motive force and the accumulation of intracellular ATP. Meanwhile, IBG antagonized the hemolysis activity of suilysin and decreased the expression of Sly gene. In vivo, IBG improved the viability of S. suis SS3-infected mice by reducing tissue bacterial load. In conclusion, IBG is a promising compound for the treatment of S. suis infections, given its antibacterial and anti-hemolysis activity

    Moderation of nitrogen input and integration of legumes via intercropping enable sustainable intensification of wheat-maize double cropping in the North China Plain : A four-year rotation study

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    CONTEXT: Wheat-maize (W-M) double cropping is the dominant land use system in the North China Plain (NCP). This system has high grain output but suffers from high fertilizer input and nitrogen (N) surplus. Meanwhile, the market demands more protein and oil crops, such as soybean or peanut. OBJECTIVE: Here, we assess whether incorporation of legumes into W-M via intercropping with maize can contribute to lower annual N input while maintaining high annual outputs and diversifying products with high yield stability. METHODS: We compared yield, yield stability, and profitability of six rotation systems: W-M30 (at the maize inter-plant distance of 30 cm), the density-increased W-M20, wheat-soybean (W-S), wheat-peanut (W-P), and wheat with an intercrop of maize (at the inter-plant distance of 20 cm) and soybean (W-MS) or peanut (W-MP). Four annual N input levels were compared: N0 (no N input), N1 (reduced N input), N2 (target practice), and N3 (current high input). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results over four years showed that replacing maize by maize/legume intercrops had a similar wheat yield as that of W-M while the N input was intermediate between W-M and W-legume rotations. Total actual/equivalent grain yields and gross margins of W-MS or W-MP were consistently intermediate between W-M and W-legume rotations. Intercropping enhanced the yield and temporal yield stability of maize per plant, with benefits for both yield stability of the intercropping system of maize season and the annual rotation system. Averaged over six rotation systems, increasing N supply increased the annual total actual/equivalent grain yield, gross margin and yield stability to a plateau starting at N1 or N2, without a further significant increase at N3. Specifically, the response of total equivalent yield or gross margin of each annual system to increasing N supply could be fitted by the linear-plateau model. Compared to the response curve of W-M, W-MS and W-S reached the plateau with a lower N input and higher yield and profit, while W-MP and W-P reached the plateau with lower N input but decreased the yield and profit. Compared to W-M with 240–360 kg N/ha/year, W-MS used 210–320 kg N/ha/year saving 11.1–12.5% fertilizer N, while maintaining or improving production by 9.1–13.0%, and improving profitability by 12.1–15.6% and temporal yield stability by 12.8–50.6%. SIGNIFICANCE: W-MS diversifies products with lower N input and higher outputs, profitability, and temporal yield stability than conventional W-M, thus is highly recommended towards productive and sustainable agriculture in the NCP

    Sparsity of the electron repulsion integral tensor using different localized virtual orbital representations in local second-order Møller–Plesset theory

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    Utilizing localized orbitals, local correlation theory can reduce the unphysically high system-size scaling of post-Hartree-Fock (post-HF) methods to linear scaling in insulating molecules. The sparsity of the four-index electron repulsion integral (ERI) tensor is central to achieving this reduction. For second-order Møller-Plesset theory (MP2), one of the simplest post-HF methods, only the (ia|jb) ERIs are needed, coupling occupied orbitals i, j and virtuals a, b. In this paper, we compare the numerical sparsity (called the "ragged list") and two other approaches revealing the low-rank sparsity of the ERI. The ragged list requires only one set of (localized) virtual orbitals, and we find that the orthogonal valence virtual-hard virtual set of virtuals originally proposed by Subotnik et al. gives the sparsest ERI tensor. To further compress the ERI tensor, the pair natural orbital (PNO) type representation uses different sets of virtual orbitals for different occupied orbital pairs, while the occupied-specific virtual (OSV) approach uses different virtuals for each occupied orbital. Our results indicate that while the low-rank PNO representation achieves significant rank reduction, it also requires more memory than the ragged list. The OSV approach requires similar memory to that of the ragged list, but it involves greater algorithmic complexity. An approximation (called the "fixed sparsity pattern") for solving the local MP2 equations using the numerically sparse ERI tensor is proposed and tested to be sufficiently accurate and to have highly controllable error. A low-scaling local MP2 algorithm based on the ragged list and the fixed sparsity pattern is therefore promising

    Maximizing Grains While Minimizing Yield-Scaled Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Wheat Production in China

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    Researchers have previously described the response of crop productivity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen (N) additions, but they have not determined how to maximize yields while minimizing GHG emissions. We conducted an experiment at 2293 sites with four N levels to simulate both grain yield and yield-scaled GHG emissions in response to the N addition. The yield-scaled GHG emissions decreased by 16% as the N rate increased from treatments without the N addition to the minimum yield-scaled GHG emissions, which was comparable to the values associated with the maximum grain yields. The sites with both high soil productivity and high crop productivity had the highest yield and lowest yield-scaled GHG emissions, with 43% higher yield and 38% lower yield-scaled GHG emissions than sites with low soil and low crop productivity. These findings are expected to enhance evaluations of wheat production and GHG emissions in China, and thereby contribute to addressing disparities in the global food and GHG budget