53 research outputs found

    Fertilization strategies for abating N pollution at the scale of a highly vulnerable and diverse semi-arid agricultural region (Murcia, Spain)

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    Overuse of N fertilizers in crops has induced the disruption of the N cycle, triggering the release of reactive N (Nr) to the environment. Several EU policies have been developed to address this challenge, establishing targets to reduce agricultural Nr losses. Their achievement could be materialized through the introduction of fertilizing innovations such as incorporating fertilizer into soils, using urease inhibitors, or by adjusting N inputs to crop needs that could impact in both yields and environment. The Murcia region (southeastern Spain) was selected as a paradigmatic case study, since overfertilization has induced severe environmental problems in the region in the last decade, to assess the impact of a set of 8 N fertilizing alternatives on crop yields and environmental Nr losses. Some of these practices imply the reduction of N entering in crops. We followed an integrated approach analyzing the evolution of the region in the long-term (1860-2018) and considering nested spatial- (from grid to region) and systems scales (from crops to the full agro-food system). We hypothesized that, even despite reduction of N inputs, suitable solutions for the abatement of Nr can be identified without compromising crop yields. The most effective option to reduce Nr losses was removing synthetic N fertilizers, leading to 75% reductions in N surpluses mainly due to a reduction of 64% of N inputs, but with associated yield penalties (31%-35%). The most feasible alternative was the removal of urea, resulting in 19% reductions of N inputs, 15%-21% declines in N surplus, and negligible yield losses. While these measures are applied at the field scale, their potential to produce a valuable change can only be assessed at regional scale. Because of this, a spatial analysis was performed showing that largest Nr losses occurred in irrigated horticultural crops. The policy implications of the results are discussed

    Fertilization strategies for abating N pollution at the scale of a highly vulnerable and diverse semi-arid agricultural region (Murcia, Spain)

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    Overuse of N fertilizers in crops has induced the disruption of the N cycle, triggering the release of reactive N (Nr) to the environment. Several EU policies have been developed to address this challenge, establishing targets to reduce agricultural Nr losses. Their achievement could be materialized through the introduction of fertilizing innovations such as incorporating fertilizer into soils, using urease inhibitors, or by adjusting N inputs to crop needs that could impact in both yields and environment. The Murcia region (southeastern Spain) was selected as a paradigmatic case study, since overfertilization has induced severe environmental problems in the region in the last decade, to assess the impact of a set of 8 N fertilizing alternatives on crop yields and environmental Nr losses. Some of these practices imply the reduction of N entering in crops. We followed an integrated approach analyzing the evolution of the region in the long-term (1860–2018) and considering nested spatial- (from grid to region) and systems scales (from crops to the full agro-food system). We hypothesized that, even despite reduction of N inputs, suitable solutions for the abatement of Nr can be identified without compromising crop yields. The most effective option to reduce Nr losses was removing synthetic N fertilizers, leading to 75% reductions in N surpluses mainly due to a reduction of 64% of N inputs, but with associated yield penalties (31%–35%). The most feasible alternative was the removal of urea, resulting in 19% reductions of N inputs, 15%–21% declines in N surplus, and negligible yield losses. While these measures are applied at the field scale, their potential to produce a valuable change can only be assessed at regional scale. Because of this, a spatial analysis was performed showing that largest Nr losses occurred in irrigated horticultural crops. The policy implications of the results are discussed

    A decentralized approach to model national and global food and land use systems

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    The achievement of several sustainable development goals and the Paris Climate Agreement depends on rapid progress towards sustainable food and land systems in all countries. We have built a flexible, collaborative modeling framework to foster the development of national pathways by local research teams and their integration up to global scale. Local researchers independently customize national models to explore mid-century pathways of the food and land use system transformation in collaboration with stakeholders. An online platform connects the national models, iteratively balances global exports and imports, and aggregates results to the global level. Our results show that actions toward greater sustainability in countries could sum up to 1 Mha net forest gain per year, 950 Mha net gain in the land where natural processes predominate, and an increased CO2 sink of 3.7 GtCO2e yr−1 over the period 2020-2050 compared to current trends, while average food consumption per capita remains above the adequate food requirements in all countries. We show examples of how the global linkage impacts national results and how different assumptions in national pathways impact global results. This modeling setup acknowledges the broad heterogeneity of socio-ecological contexts and the fact that people who live in these different contexts should be empowered to design the future they want. But it also demonstrates to local decision-makers the interconnectedness of our food and land use system and the urgent need for more collaboration to converge local and global priorities.Fil: Mosnier, Aline. Sustainable Development Solutions Network; FranciaFil: Javalera Rincon, Valeria. International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg; AustriaFil: Jones, Sarah K. Alliance of Bioversity International; FranciaFil: Andrew, Robbie. Center for International Climate Research; NoruegaFil: Bai, Zhaohai. Chinese Academy of Sciences; República de ChinaFil: Baker, Justin. North Carolina State University; Estados UnidosFil: Basnet, Shyam. Stockholm Resilience Centre; SueciaFil: Boer, Rizaldi. Bogor Agricultural University; IndonesiaFil: Chavarro, John. Geo-agro-environmental Sciences And Resources Research Center; ColombiaFil: Costa, Wanderson. Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais; BrasilFil: Daloz, Anne Sophie. Center for International Climate Research; NoruegaFil: DeClerck, Fabrice A.. Alliance of Bioversity International; Francia. Stockholm Resilience Centre; SueciaFil: Diaz, Maria. Sustainable Development Solutions Network; FranciaFil: Douzal, Clara. Sustainable Development Solutions Network; FranciaFil: Howe Fan, Andrew Chiah. Sunway University; MalasiaFil: Fetzer, Ingo. Stockholm Resilience Centre; SueciaFil: Frank, Federico. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Gonzalez Abraham, Charlotte E.. University of California at San Diego; Estados UnidosFil: Habiburrachman, A. H. F.. Universitas Indonesia; IndonesiaFil: Immanuel, Gito. Stockholm Resilience Centre; SueciaFil: Harrison, Paula A.. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology; Reino UnidoFil: Imanirareba, Dative. Uganda Martyrs University; UgandaFil: Jha, Chandan. Indian Institute Of Management Ahmedabad; IndiaFil: Monjeau, Jorge Adrian. Fundación Bariloche; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Vittis, Yiorgos. International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis; AustriaFil: Wade, Chris. North Carolina State University; Estados UnidosFil: Winarni, Nurul L.. Universitas Indonesia; IndonesiaFil: Woldeyes, Firew Bekele. Ethiopian Development Research Institute; EtiopíaFil: Wu, Grace C.. University of California; Estados UnidosFil: Zerriffi, Hisham. University of British Columbia; Canad

    Synthesis and Antiphytopathogenic Activity of Novel Oxazolidine-2,4-diones Bearing Phenoxypyridine Moiety

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    In the present study, we conducted optimization of pyramoxadone and synthesized a series of novel oxazolidinediones. Antifungal assays showed that these compounds exhibited moderate to excellent antifungal activity against various pathogens. Further SAR analysis revealed that the introduction of substituents to the benzene ring of the phenoxy group or the inclusion of bulky groups, such as tert-butyl, on the aniline moiety, had a detrimental effect on the activity. However, the inclusion of fluorine atoms in the aniline moiety significantly enhanced the antifungal efficacy. Notably, compound 2-4 displayed significantly higher activity compared to both pyramoxadone and famoxadone against R. solani, B. cinerea, S. sclerotiorum, and P. oryzae, where it demonstrated EC50 values of 1.78, 2.47, 2.33, and 2.23 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, compound 2-4 exhibited potent protective and curative effects against the tomato gray mold in vivo. A mechanistic investigation revealed that compound 2-4 significantly impacted the mycelial morphology, inhibited spore germination, and impeded mycelial respiration, ultimately leading to the inhibition of pathogenic fungus growth. These findings indicate that compound 2-4 has the potential to serve as a cyt bc1 inhibitor and should be further investigated for development

    A decentralized approach to model national and global food and land use systems

    Get PDF
    The achievement of several sustainable development goals and the Paris Climate Agreement depends on rapid progress towards sustainable food and land systems in all countries. We have built a flexible, collaborative modeling framework to foster the development of national pathways by local research teams and their integration up to global scale. Local researchers independently customize national models to explore mid-century pathways of the food and land use system transformation in collaboration with stakeholders. An online platform connects the national models, iteratively balances global exports and imports, and aggregates results to the global level. Our results show that actions toward greater sustainability in countries could sum up to 1 Mha net forest gain per year, 950 Mha net gain in the land where natural processes predominate, and an increased CO _2 sink of 3.7 GtCO _2 e yr ^−1 over the period 2020–2050 compared to current trends, while average food consumption per capita remains above the adequate food requirements in all countries. We show examples of how the global linkage impacts national results and how different assumptions in national pathways impact global results. This modeling setup acknowledges the broad heterogeneity of socio-ecological contexts and the fact that people who live in these different contexts should be empowered to design the future they want. But it also demonstrates to local decision-makers the interconnectedness of our food and land use system and the urgent need for more collaboration to converge local and global priorities

    Climate change : strategies for mitigation and adaptation

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    The sustainability of life on Earth is under increasing threat due to humaninduced climate change. This perilous change in the Earth's climate is caused by increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, primarily due to emissions associated with burning fossil fuels. Over the next two to three decades, the effects of climate change, such as heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, storms, and floods, are expected to worsen, posing greater risks to human health and global stability. These trends call for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies. Pollution and environmental degradation exacerbate existing problems and make people and nature more susceptible to the effects of climate change. In this review, we examine the current state of global climate change from different perspectives. We summarize evidence of climate change in Earth’s spheres, discuss emission pathways and drivers of climate change, and analyze the impact of climate change on environmental and human health. We also explore strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation and highlight key challenges for reversing and adapting to global climate change

    How can diverse national food and land-use priorities be reconciled with global sustainability targets? Lessons from the FABLE initiative

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    There is an urgent need for countries to transition their national food and land-use systems toward food and nutritional security, climate stability, and environmental integrity. How can countries satisfy their demands while jointly delivering the required transformative change to achieve global sustainability targets? Here, we present a collaborative approach developed with the FABLE—Food, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Land, and Energy—Consortium to reconcile both global and national elements for developing national food and land-use system pathways. This approach includes three key features: (1) global targets, (2) country-driven multi-objective pathways, and (3) multiple iterations of pathway refinement informed by both national and international impacts. This approach strengthens policy coherence and highlights where greater national and international ambition is needed to achieve global goals (e.g., the SDGs). We discuss how this could be used to support future climate and biodiversity negotiations and what further developments would be needed

    China's low-emission pathways toward climate-neutral livestock production for animal-derived foods

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    Funding Information: This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31922080 and 31872403 ), China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA and the Hunan province science and technology plan (Grant No. 2022NK2021 ).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Unravelling China’s livestock transition: nutrient flows and greenhouse gas emissions

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    China’s future food demand and its implications for trade and environment

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    Acknowledgements We acknowledge support from UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN)—A. Mosnier, J. Poncet and G. Schmidt-Traub—who initiated this project in the context of FABLE, accompanied it throughout its duration and provided many valuable comments. L.M. acknowledges support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC (31972517); the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, CAS (2019101); Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, CAS (ZD201802); the Outstanding Young Scientists Project of Natural Science Foundation of Hebei (C2019503054). This research has also received funding from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Norwegian International Climate and Forest Initiative and World Resources Institute. Finally, H.Z. acknowledges IIASA’s Young Scientists Summer Program for providing collaboration opportunities.Peer reviewedPostprin
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