37 research outputs found

    The Impact of Urbanization on Mesoscale Convective Systems in the Yangtze River Delta Region of China: Insights Gained From Observations and Modeling

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    Urbanization is an important factor that may influence the formation and development of clouds and precipitation. In this study, we focus on studying the influence of urbanization on mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over the Yangtze River Delta region in China under different synoptic conditions using a combination of radiosonde, meteorological station, and satellite observations. It demonstrates that synoptic forcing can be used to distinguish the effect of land cover and land use on MCS. When the synoptic-scale forcing is weak, the urban heat island (UHI) is the main factor affecting the vertical development of clouds. The UHI decreases atmospheric stability and enhances horizontal convergence, invigorating clouds over and downwind of cities. On the other hand, when strong synoptic-scale forcing is present, buildings in cities cause clouds to bifurcate upwind of cities, moving around them, primarily through their dynamic effects. The heights of cloud tops in central and downwind parts of cities thus drop. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations of different atmospheric forcings also demonstrate similar patterns around major urban areas. The joint analyses of observations and model simulations provide new insights into the net effects of urbanization on cloud systems.https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JD03770

    Study of the Mechanical Properties of Beam-Column Joints in a New Type of Aluminum Alloy Portal Frame

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    In the article, the semi-permanent aluminum alloy portal frame is used as the research background, beam-column joints are used as the research object, and experimental and numerical analyses are carried out. The influence of different bolt diameters and arch angles on the mechanical properties of beam-column joints under vertical load was analyzed using five sets of experiments. The experimental results show that the load–displacement curves of different bolt diameters in the elastic stage are basically consistent. After entering the plastic stage, the ultimate load first increases and then decreases, and the ultimate displacement is basically consistent. According to the experiment, there is no significant difference in the load–displacement curve when the arch angle increases from 90 degrees to 108 degrees. When the arch angle increases to 126 degrees, the stiffness and ultimate bearing capacity of the node under vertical load significantly increase. Then, a numerical analysis model was established to analyze the mechanical performance of beam-column joints under horizontal loads. The numerical analysis results indicate that under horizontal load, as the diameter of the bolt increases, the yield load, yield displacement, ultimate load, and ultimate displacement of the beam-column node exhibit no significant changes, and the change amplitude is minimal. When the beam-column node is subjected to horizontal loads, as the arch angle increases, the yield and ultimate displacement increase by 2.14 times and 2.78 times, respectively, and the yield and ultimate load decrease by 58% and 48%, respectively. Finally, a simplified design method for beam-column joints was proposed based on experiments and numerical analysis

    Insights into vertical differences of particle number size distributions in winter in Beijing, China

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    Particle number size distribution (PNSD) is of importance for understanding the mechanisms of particle growth, haze formation and climate impacts. However, the measurements of PNSD aloft in megacities are very limited. Here we report the first simultaneous winter measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations along with collocated gaseous species and aerosol composition at ground level and 260 m in Beijing. Our study showed that the vertical differences of particle number concentrations between ground level and aloft varied significantly as a function of particle size throughout the study. Further analysis illustrated the impacts of boundary dynamics and meteorological conditions on the vertical differences of PNSD. In particular, the temperature and relative humidity inversions were one of the most important factors by decoupling the boundary layer into different sources and processes. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified six sources of PNSD at both ground level and city aloft. The local source emissions dominantly contributed to Aitken-mode particles, and showed the largest vertical gradients in the city. Comparatively, the regional particles were highly correlated between ground level and city aloft, and the vertical differences were relatively stable throughout the day. Our results point to-wards a complex vertical evolution of PNSD due to the changes in boundary layer dynamics, meteorological con-ditions, sources, and processes in megacities. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Peer reviewe

    A 3D study on the amplification of regional haze and particle growth by local emissions

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    The role of new particle formation (NPF) events and their contribution to haze formation through subsequent growth in polluted megacities is still controversial. To improve the understanding of the sources, meteorological conditions, and chemistry behind air pollution, we performed simultaneous measurements of aerosol composition and particle number size distributions at ground level and at 260 m in central Beijing, China, during a total of 4 months in 2015-2017. Our measurements show a pronounced decoupling of gas-to-particle conversion between the two heights, leading to different haze processes in terms of particle size distributions and chemical compositions. The development of haze was initiated by the growth of freshly formed particles at both heights, whereas the more severe haze at ground level was connected directly to local primary particles and gaseous precursors leading to higher particle growth rates. The particle growth creates a feedback loop, in which a further development of haze increases the atmospheric stability, which in turn strengthens the persisting apparent decoupling between the two heights and increases the severity of haze at ground level. Moreover, we complemented our field observations with model analyses, which suggest that the growth of NPF-originated particles accounted up to similar to 60% of the accumulation mode particles in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area during haze conditions. The results suggest that a reduction in anthropogenic gaseous precursors, suppressing particle growth, is a critical step for alleviating haze although the number concentration of freshly formed particles (3-40 nm) via NPF does not reduce after emission controls.Peer reviewe

    East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Clouds, Precipitation, and Climate (EAST-AIR_(CPC))

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    Aerosols have significant and complex impacts on regional climate in East Asia. Cloud‐aerosol‐precipitation interactions (CAPI) remain most challenging in climate studies. The quantitative understanding of CAPI requires good knowledge of aerosols, ranging from their formation, composition, transport, and their radiative, hygroscopic, and microphysical properties. A comprehensive review is presented here centered on the CAPI based chiefly, but not limited to, publications in the special section named EAST‐AIRcpc concerning (1) observations of aerosol loading and properties, (2) relationships between aerosols and meteorological variables affecting CAPI, (3) mechanisms behind CAPI, and (4) quantification of CAPI and their impact on climate. Heavy aerosol loading in East Asia has significant radiative effects by reducing surface radiation, increasing the air temperature, and lowering the boundary layer height. A key factor is aerosol absorption, which is particularly strong in central China. This absorption can have a wide range of impacts such as creating an imbalance of aerosol radiative forcing at the top and bottom of the atmosphere, leading to inconsistent retrievals of cloud variables from space‐borne and ground‐based instruments. Aerosol radiative forcing can delay or suppress the initiation and development of convective clouds whose microphysics can be further altered by the microphysical effect of aerosols. For the same cloud thickness, the likelihood of precipitation is influenced by aerosols: suppressing light rain and enhancing heavy rain, delaying but intensifying thunderstorms, and reducing the onset of isolated showers in most parts of China. Rainfall has become more inhomogeneous and more extreme in the heavily polluted urban regions

    East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Clouds, Precipitation, and Climate (EAST-AIR_(CPC))

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    Aerosols have significant and complex impacts on regional climate in East Asia. Cloud‐aerosol‐precipitation interactions (CAPI) remain most challenging in climate studies. The quantitative understanding of CAPI requires good knowledge of aerosols, ranging from their formation, composition, transport, and their radiative, hygroscopic, and microphysical properties. A comprehensive review is presented here centered on the CAPI based chiefly, but not limited to, publications in the special section named EAST‐AIRcpc concerning (1) observations of aerosol loading and properties, (2) relationships between aerosols and meteorological variables affecting CAPI, (3) mechanisms behind CAPI, and (4) quantification of CAPI and their impact on climate. Heavy aerosol loading in East Asia has significant radiative effects by reducing surface radiation, increasing the air temperature, and lowering the boundary layer height. A key factor is aerosol absorption, which is particularly strong in central China. This absorption can have a wide range of impacts such as creating an imbalance of aerosol radiative forcing at the top and bottom of the atmosphere, leading to inconsistent retrievals of cloud variables from space‐borne and ground‐based instruments. Aerosol radiative forcing can delay or suppress the initiation and development of convective clouds whose microphysics can be further altered by the microphysical effect of aerosols. For the same cloud thickness, the likelihood of precipitation is influenced by aerosols: suppressing light rain and enhancing heavy rain, delaying but intensifying thunderstorms, and reducing the onset of isolated showers in most parts of China. Rainfall has become more inhomogeneous and more extreme in the heavily polluted urban regions

    Reliable multiplex sequencing with rare index mis-assignment on DNB-based NGS platform

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    Abstract Background Massively-parallel-sequencing, coupled with sample multiplexing, has made genetic tests broadly affordable. However, intractable index mis-assignments (commonly exceeds 1%) were repeatedly reported on some widely used sequencing platforms. Results Here, we investigated this quality issue on BGI sequencers using three library preparation methods: whole genome sequencing (WGS) with PCR, PCR-free WGS, and two-step targeted PCR. BGI’s sequencers utilize a unique DNA nanoball (DNB) technology which uses rolling circle replication for DNA-nanoball preparation; this linear amplification is PCR free and can avoid error accumulation. We demonstrated that single index mis-assignment from free indexed oligos occurs at a rate of one in 36 million reads, suggesting virtually no index hopping during DNB creation and arraying. Furthermore, the DNB-based NGS libraries have achieved an unprecedentedly low sample-to-sample mis-assignment rate of 0.0001 to 0.0004% under recommended procedures. Conclusions Single indexing with DNB technology provides a simple but effective method for sensitive genetic assays with large sample numbers

    Agricultural nitrogen and phosphorus emissions to water and their mitigation options in the Haihe Basin, China

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    Agricultural nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to water bodies remain largely unknown in China, mainly due to the lack of reliable data sources and quantification tools. In this study, we constructed a grid-based NUFER (NUtrient Flow in food chains, Environment and Resources use) model in order to quantify a high-resolution agricultural N and P emissions to water bodies in Haihe Basin in 2012, based on data collected from county-level statistics, farm interview, and spatial data of topography, climate, soil texture, and land use. We also explored the mitigation strategies in 2030 via scenario analysis. The results showed that total agricultural N emission to water bodies in Haihe Basin was 1079 Gg N in 2012, of which cropland contributed 54%; total agricultural P emission to water bodies was 208 Gg P, livestock contributed 78%. There were large spatial variations in agricultural N and P emissions. Overall, the plain areas accounted for around 80% of the total agricultural N and P emissions to water in 2012. The highest N and P emission intensities were 10 t N km−2 and 2 t P km−2, respectively. N and P emissions were significantly related to anthropogenic factors (such as the livestock density and cropland) in the plain areas; whereas in mountainous areas, both anthropogenic and natural factors (e.g., slope deviation and soil texture) significantly affected N and P emissions. Our scenario analysis suggests that agricultural N and P emissions can be reduced by up to 45% and 77%, respectively for N and P in 2030, via improved agricultural and environmental policies, technologies and managements. The prohibition of direct animal manure discharge to the water system seems to be the most effective measure to mitigate the emissions. Our study provided a high-resolution agricultural N and P emissions to the water bodies of Haihe Basin and identified the most effective options to reduce these emissions in highly intensified agricultural areas.</p

    Enlarging rainfall area of tropical cyclones by atmospheric aerosols

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    The size of a tropical cyclone (TC), measured by the area of either rainfall or wind, is an important indicator for the potential damage by TC. Modeling studies suggested that aerosols tend to enhance rainfall in the outer rainbands, which enlarges the eyewall radius and expands the extent of rainfall area. However, no observational evidence has yet been reported. Using TC rainfall area and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, we find that aerosols have a distinguishable footprint in the TC size. Other dynamical factors for TC size, such as relative SST and Coriolis parameter, are also quantified and discussed. We show that, on average, TC rainfall size increases 9–20 km for each 0.1 increase of AOD in the western North Pacific. This finding implies that anthropogenic aerosol pollution can increase not only TC rainfall rate, but also TC rainfall area, resulting in potentially more destructive flooding affecting larger areas

    Improved retrieval of cloud base heights from ceilometer using a non-standard instrument method

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    Cloud-base height (CBH) is a basic cloud parameter but has not been measured accurately, especially under polluted conditions due to the interference of aerosol. Taking advantage of a comprehensive field experiment in northern China in which a variety of advanced cloud probing instruments were operated, different methods of detecting CBH are assessed. The Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) and the Vaisala ceilometer (CL51) provided two types of backscattered profiles. The latter has been employed widely as a standard means of measuring CBH using the manufacturer's operational algorithm to generate standard CBH products (CL51 MAN) whose quality is rigorously assessed here, in comparison with a research algorithm that we developed named value distribution equalization (VDE) algorithm. It was applied to both the profiles of lidar backscattering data from the two instruments. The VDE algorithm is found to produce more accurate estimates of CBH for both instruments and can cope with heavy aerosol loading conditions well. By contrast, CL51 MAN overestimates CBH by 400 m and misses many low level clouds under such conditions. These findings are important given that CL51 has been adopted operationally by many meteorological stations in China
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