19 research outputs found

    The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

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    Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS 65 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA; moreover, it might express prognostic potential for clustering the patient population in risk classes. Confirmatory studies are required

    Chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV with respect to risk of prostate cancer

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    Background: Chronic inflammatory infiltrate (CII) might be involved in prostate cancer (PCA) and benign hyperplasia (BPH); however, its significance is controversial. Chronic inflammatory prostatitis type IV is the most common non cancer diagnosis in men undergoing biopsy because of suspected PCA. Objective: To evaluate potential associations of coexistent CII and PCA in biopsy specimens after prostate assessment. Design, setting, and participants: Between January 2007 and December 2008, 415 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy were retrospectively evaluated. The investigated variables included Age (years) and PSA (ug/l); moreover, CII+, glandular atrophy (GA+), glandular hyperplasia (GH+), prostate Intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN+), atypical small acinar cell proliferation (ASAP+) and PCA positive cores (P+) were evaluated as categorical and continuous (proportion of positive cores). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Associations of CII+ and PCA risk were assessed by statistical methods. Results and limitations: In the patient population, a biopsy core positive for PCA was detected in 34.2% of cases and the rate of high grade PCA (HGPCA: bGS ! 8) resulted 4.82%. CII+ significantly and inversely associated with a positive biopsy core P+ (P 0.0001; OR = 0.26) and HGPCA (P = 0.0005; OR = 0.05). Moreover, the associations indicated that patients with coexistent CII+ on needle biopsy were 74% less likely to have coexistent PCA than men without CII+ as well as 95% less likely to have HGPCA in the biopsy core than men without coexistent CII+. There were limits in our study which was single centre and included only one dedicated pathologist. Conclusions: There was an inverse association of chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV and risk of PCA; moreover, HGPCA was less likely to be detected in cancers associated with coexistent CII. In prostate microenvironment, prostate chronic inflammation may be protective; however, its role in PCA carcinogenesis remains controversial and needs further research

    Clinical Factors Predicting and Stratifying the Risk of Lymph Node Invasion in Localized Prostate Cancer

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    Purpose: The study aimed to investigate clinical factors associating with occult lymph node micrometastases (pN1 disease) in a contemporary cohort of organ-confined prostate cancer (PCA) patients staged as cN0. Materials and Methods: The study evaluated 184 consecutive patients. Associations of clinical factors with pN1 disease were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Lymph node invasion was detected in 33 cases (17.9%). Independent factors associating with pN1 status were prostate specific antigen (PSA; OR 1.054; p = 0.004), percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC; OR 1.030; p = 0.013), and biopsy Gleason pattern (bGP) >4 + 3 (OR 3.666; p = 0.004). A clinical model predicting the risk of pN1 disease identified 4 prognostic groups of pN1 disease. Conclusions: In a contemporary cohort of PCA patients, lymph node invasion was detected in 17.9% of cases. An independent clinical disease showed that the risk of lymph node invasion was directly proportional to PPC and more stratification of the risk of pN1 disease was operated by PSA and BGP. The model allowed the stratification of the patient population in 4 groups and showed that the risk of lymph node invasion progressively increased as the risk group ranked from 1 to 4

    American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status system predicts the risk of postoperative Clavien-Dindo complications greater than one at 90 days after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: final results of a tertiary referral center

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    To test the hypothesis of an association between the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system and the risk of 90-days postoperative complications after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification system (CDS). In a period ranging from January 2013 to October 2020, 1143 patients were evaluated. ASA classification was computed by trained anesthesiologists. Postoperative complications at 90 days after RARP were grouped as greater than one (CDS between 2 and 4a) versus up to one (CDS between 0 and 1). The risk association was computed using logistic regression models. According to ASA physical status classification system, patients were distributed as follows: 102 (8.9%) ASA 1, 934 (81.7%) ASA 2, and 107 (9.4%) ASA 3. Overall, 90-days postoperative complications occurred in 277 (24.2%) cases, of which 137 (12%) were graded as CDS 1 vs. 105 (9.2%) CDS 2 vs. 17 (1.5%) CDS 3a vs. 15 (1.3%) CDS 3b vs. 3 (0.3%) CDS 4a. ASA 2 and 3 patient categories were more likely to have 90-days postoperative complications CDS > 1 (12.5% and 16.8%, respectively) compared to ASA 1 patients (4.9%). The risk association was stronger for ASA 3 (odds ratio, [OR]: 4.085; 95%CI: 1.457-11.455; p = 0.007) than for ASA 2 (OR: 2.907; 95%CI: 1.106-7.285; p = 0.023) patient categories. After adjustment for clinical, pathological, and perioperative covariates, including pelvic lymph node dissection (performed vs. not performed), either ASA 2 or 3 categories remained independent predictors of 90-days postoperative complications CDS > 1. The risk of 90-days postoperative complications CDS > 1 after RARP increased as the ASA physical status deteriorated independently by performing or not an extended pelvic lymph node dissection. In the ASA 3 patients category, RARP should be performed at tertiary referral centers to safely manage the risk of postoperative complications

    Endogenous testosterone as a predictor of prostate growing disorders in the aging male

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    To investigate the associations of endogenous testosterone with prostate growing disorders (PGD) including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCA)

    Preoperative endogenous total testosterone predicts prostate cancer progression: results in 580 consecutive patients treated with robot assisted radical prostatectomy for clinically localized disease

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    Purpose: To test the role of endogenous total testosterone (ETT) as a predictor of prostate cancer (PCa) progression in patients treated with robot assisted radical prostatectomy for clinically localized disease. Methods: Between November 2014 and December 2019, 580 consecutive patients were evaluated. Preoperative ETT levels were classified as ≤ 350 ng/dL vs. > 350 ng/dL. The associations between ETT levels and the risk of PCa progression, defined as any event of biochemical recurrence and/or local recurrence and/or distant metastases, or other clinical and pathological factors were evaluated by regression analyses. Results: Preoperative ETT levels resulted ≤ 350 ng/dL in 173 (29.8%) patients. Disease progression occurred in 101 (17.1%) cases. Progressing patients were more likely to present with PSA levels > 10 ng/mL, as well as with unfavorable tumor grade (ISUP 4-5) and stage (pT3b) at final pathology, but less likely to have ETT levels ≤ 350 ng/mL. On clinical multivariable Cox regression models, ETT ≤ 350 ng/mL exhibited a statistically significant protective effect on tumor progression (hazard ratio: 0.57, p = 0.013). Subjects presenting with ETT levels ≤ 350 ng/mL were less likely to harbor ISUP 4-5 tumor grade either at biopsy (odds ratio [OR]: 0.46, p = 0.028) or final pathology (OR: 0.45, p = 0.032). Conclusions: At PCa diagnosis, ETT, which associates with ISUP tumor grade, is an independent predictor of disease progression. Accordingly, as ETT decreases to levels ≤ 350 ng/dL, the risk of unfavorable tumor grade decreases, and a more favorable prognosis is expected. Preoperative ETT levels may allow further patient stratification along prognostic risk groups

    Endogenous testosterone density as ratio of endogenous testosterone levels on prostate volume predicts tumor upgrading in low-risk prostate cancer

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    Objectives To evaluate preoperative endogenous testosterone (ET) density (ETD), defined as the ratio of ET on prostate volume, and tumor upgrading risk in low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and methods From November 2014 to December 2019, 172 low-risk patients had ET (nmol/L) measured. ETD, prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) and the ratio of percentage of biopsy positive cores (BPC) to prostate volume (PV), defined as BPC density (BPCD), were evaluated. Associations with tumor upgrading in the surgical specimen were assessed by statistical methods. Results Overall, 121 patients (70.3%) had tumor upgrading, which was predicted by BPCD (odds ratio, OR = 4.640; 95% CI 1.903-11.316; p = 0.001; overall accuracy: 70.3%). On multivariate analysis, tumor upgrading and clinical density factors related to each other for BPCD being predicted by ETD (regression coefficient, b = 0.032; 95% CI 0.021-0.043; p < 0.0001), PSAD (b = 1.962; 95% CI 1.067-2.586; p < 0.0001) and tumor upgrading (b = 0.259; 95% CI 0.112-0.406; p = 0.001). According to the model, as BPCD increased, ETD and PSAD increased, but the increase was higher for upgraded cases who showed either higher tumor load but significantly lower mean levels of either ET or PSA. Conclusions As ETD increased, higher tumor loads were assessed; however, in upgraded patients, lower ET was also detected. ETD might stratify low-risk disease for tumor upgrading features