2,007 research outputs found

    The structure of a minimal nn-chart with two crossings II: Neighbourhoods of Γ1∪Γn−1\Gamma_1\cup\Gamma_{n-1}

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    Given a 2-crossing minimal chart Γ\Gamma, a minimal chart with two crossings, set α=min⁡{ i ∣ \alpha=\min\{~i~|~there exists an edge of label ii containing a white vertex}\}, and β=max⁡{ i ∣ \beta=\max\{~i~|~there exists an edge of label ii containing a white vertex}\}. In this paper we study the structure of a neighbourhood of Γα∪Γβ\Gamma_\alpha\cup\Gamma_\beta, and propose a normal form for 2-crossing minimal nn-charts, here Γα\Gamma_\alpha and Γβ\Gamma_\beta mean the union of all the edges of label α\alpha and β\beta respectively.Comment: 57 pages, 36 figure

    PCR and Infectious Diseases

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    Since the 1950s, the medical community has been faced with infectious diseases, which have brought significant public health and financial challenges. Currently, routine testing for the laboratory diagnosis for infectious agents is based on cell culture, serological, and molecular methods. However, cell culture-based methods are used mainly in research laboratories and are less sensitive methods when compared with serological and molecular methods. The diagnosis of infectious diseases has been revolutionized by the development of molecular techniques, mainly with the applications of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The high sensitivity, specificity, and ease with which the PCR can be used to detect genetic sequences known have led to your wide application in science. A great number of qualitative and quantitative molecular assays are mostly based on what have been described such as real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, LAMP-PCR, and digital PCR. These assays could identify active infection by detecting infectious agents and nucleic acid in various clinical conditions including arboviruses, sexually transmitted infections, and bacterial infections. Further advancement of molecular technology is needed to improve the capacity to detect infectious agents in order to control the spread of infectious diseases and lead to appropriate actions which help to benefit patients and health-care workers themselves

    The Impact of Fasting Mondays and Thursdays on Self-Control of Students at Al-Mustaqim Bugel Islamic Boarding School, Jepara

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    This study aims to examine the impact of fasting on Mondays and Thursdays on self-control of students at the Al-Mustaqim Bugel Islamic Boarding School, Jepara. This research is motivated by the number of students who violate the rules of the cottage. The number of students who violate the rules of the boarding school is caused by the inability of students to manage their time, thoughts and feelings. Therefore, the researcher intends to examine how big the role of Monday and Thursday fasting on self-control of students at the Al-Mustaqim Bugel Islamic Boarding School, Jepara. The type of research uses field research (field research) with a qualitative approach method. The data collection techniques were obtained through observation, interviews, and documentation. The subjects in this study were 1 caregiver, 1 administrator, and 8 students at the Al-Mustaqim Bugel Islamic Boarding School, Jepara. In the process of data analysis using data reduction methods, data presentation, verification and drawing conclusions. The results of this study indicate that fasting on Mondays and Thursdays has an impact on self-control of students at the Al-Mustaqim Bugel Islamic Boarding School, Jepara. The impact felt by the students is that they are more able to be patient in facing various difficulties, become more disciplined individuals and are able to control their emotions. In addition, the greatest benefit experienced is feeling closer to Allah SWT so that thoughts, feelings and actions are more able to be controlled

    Targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: An update

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    Despite considerable progress in treatment protocols, B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) displays a poor prognosis in about 15–20% of pediatric cases and about 60% of adult patients. In addition, life-long irreversible late effects from chemo- and radiation therapy, including secondary malignancies, are a growing problem for leukemia survivors. Targeted therapy holds promising perspectives for cancer treatment as it may be more effective and have fewer side effects than conventional therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a key regulatory cascade which controls proliferation, survival and drug-resistance of cancer cells, and it is frequently upregulated in the different subtypes of B-ALL, where it plays important roles in the pathophysiology, maintenance and progression of the disease. Moreover, activation of this signaling cascade portends a poorer prognosis in both pediatric and adult B-ALL patients. Promising preclinical data on PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors have documented their anticancer activity in B-ALL and some of these novel drugs have entered clinical trials as they could lead to a longer event-free survival and reduce therapy-associated toxicity for patients with B-ALL. This review highlights the current status of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors in B-ALL, with an emphasis on emerging evidence of the superior efficacy of synergistic combinations involving the use of traditional chemotherapeutics or other novel, targeted agents

    Nutrients, herbal bioactive derivatives and commensal microbiota as tools to lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection

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    The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has infected a vast population across the world, causing more than 664 million cases and 6.7 million deaths by January 2023. Vaccination has been effective in reducing the most critical aftermath of this infection, but some issues are still present regarding re-infection prevention, effectiveness against variants, vaccine hesitancy and worldwide accessibility. Moreover, although several old and new antiviral drugs have been tested, we still lack robust and specific treatment modalities. It appears of utmost importance, facing this continuously growing pandemic, to focus on alternative practices grounded on firm scientific bases. In this article, we aim to outline a rigorous scientific background and propose complementary nutritional tools useful toward containment, and ultimately control, of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In particular, we review the mechanisms of viral entry and discuss the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from α-linolenic acid and other nutrients in preventing the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with its entry gateways. In a similar way, we analyze in detail the role of herbal-derived pharmacological compounds and specific microbial strains or microbial-derived polypeptides in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry. In addition, we highlight the role of probiotics, nutrients and herbal-derived compounds in stimulating the immunity response

    p53/NF-kB Balance in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: From OMICs, Genomics and Pharmacogenomics Insights to Tailored Therapeutic Perspectives (COVIDomics)

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    SARS-CoV-2 infection affects different organs and tissues, including the upper and lower airways, the lung, the gut, the olfactory system and the eye, which may represent one of the gates to the central nervous system. Key transcriptional factors, such as p53 and NF-kB and their reciprocal balance, are altered upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as other key molecules such as the virus host cell entry mediator ACE2, member of the RAS-pathway. These changes are thought to play a central role in the impaired immune response, as well as in the massive cytokine release, the so-called cytokine storm that represents a hallmark of the most severe form of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Host genetics susceptibility is an additional key side to consider in a complex disease as COVID-19 characterized by such a wide range of clinical phenotypes. In this review, we underline some molecular mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 modulates p53 and NF-kB expression and activity in order to maximize viral replication into the host cells. We also face the RAS-pathway unbalance triggered by virus-ACE2 interaction to discuss potential pharmacological and pharmacogenomics approaches aimed at restoring p53/NF-kB and ACE1/ACE2 balance to counteract the most severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection

    Guidelines for the monitoring of Lucanus cervus

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    Lucanus cervus is one of the most charismatic saproxylic beetles, widely distributed in Europe. The species is typical of mature deciduous forests, especially oak woodlands. Loss and fragmentation of suitable habitats is one of the major threats for this species which is included in Annex II of the Habitats Directive. Despite several studies carried out in the last years for the monitoring methods of the species, an analytical comparison between them is still lacking. The aims of this paper are (i) to review the current knowledge about systematics, ecology and conservation practices on L. cervus and (ii) to present the research carried out during the Life MIPP project, in order to define a standard monitoring method with a suitable protocol to be used for addressing the obligations of the Habitats Directive. Overall, five methods were tested during three years in two different study areas. Based on these results, a suitable standard method for L. cervus is proposed in this paper and, in order to assess the conservation status of populations and to compare them over time, a simple method for the calculation of a reference value is provided

    House of Representatives : democracy and equal opportunities between women and men?

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    Esta pesquisa analisou as oportunidades das mulheres em termos de igualdade na ocupação de cargos de alta chefia na Câmara dos Deputados. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada entre novembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2006 e a amostra abrangeu 1.320 participantes. A Escala de Percepção de Igualdade de Oportunidades entre Mulheres e Homens foi aplicada para analisar a atitude dos servidores quanto a possibilidades e limites de ascensão da mulher na estrutura de cargos da organização. A escala constava de 34 itens, com respostas tipo Likert, e 6 itens sobre dados demográficos. A coleta de dados foi feita pela rede interna de computadores da Câmara dos Deputados, através de e-mail enviado aos 3.597 servidores do quadro efetivo. Os dados foram submetidos à análise dos componentes principais (ACP), rotação promax, com resultados meritórios (KMO = 86,0; Bartlett: 14894,879), para 4 fatores. Observaram-se diferenças entre mulheres e homens quanto aos escores obtidos. As oportunidades de ocupar cargo de alta chefia são menores para elas do que para eles. Há mais gerentes do sexo masculino, e os servidores, especialmente as mulheres que não ocupam posto de chefia, percebem que não há igualdade de oportunidades entre funcionários de ambos os sexos. ___________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACTThis research analyzed women's opportunities in terms of equality in the occupation of high leadership positions in the Brazilian House of Representatives. The field research was carried out from November 2005 to January 2006 and the survey comprised 1,320 respondents. The Perception Scale of Equal Opportunities Between Women and Men was applied to analyze the attitude of public servants with regard to women's ascension possibilities and limitations within the position structure of the organization. The scale consisted of 34 items, with Likert-style responses, and 6 items on demographic data. Data collection was carried out using the internal computer network of the House of Representatives, through an e-mail sent to the 3,597 effective public servants. Data underwent principal component analysis (PCA), promax rotation, with meritorious results (KMO = 86.0; Bartlett:14894.879), to 4 factors. Differences between men and women were observed with regard to the scores obtained. The opportunities of occupying a high leadership position are smaller for women than men. There are more male managers, and the public servants, especially women who don't occupy chief positions, notice that there're no equal opportunities between employees of both sexes

    Treatment With Recombinant Tumor Necrosis Factor–Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Alleviates the Severity of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) treatment in a model of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Recombinant TRAIL was added in vitro to primary human and mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and isolated human islets to evaluate the expression of the immunoregulatory gene SOCS1. Diabetes was induced by five consecutive daily injections of low-concentration (50 mg/kg) streptozotocin (STZ) in C57 black mice (n = 24). A group of these mice (n = 12) was co-injected with recombinant TRAIL (20 microg/day) for 5 days, and the diabetic status (glycemia and body weight) was followed over time. After 6 weeks, circulating levels of insulin, TNF-alpha, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were measured, and animals were killed to perform the histological analysis of the pancreas. RESULTS: The in vitro exposure of both PBMCs and human islets to recombinant TRAIL significantly upregulated the expression of SOCS1. With respect to STZ-treated animals, mice co-injected with STZ+TRAIL were characterized by 1) lower levels of hyperglycemia, 2) higher levels of body weight and insulinemia, 3) a partial preservation of pancreatic islets with normal morphology, and 4) a lower expression of both systemic (TNF-alpha and OPG) and pancreatic (vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1) inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data demonstrate that the administration of recombinant TRAIL ameliorates the severity of STZ-induced type 1 diabetes, and this effect was accompanied by the upregulation of SOCS1 expressio

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL): a potential candidate for combined treatment of hematological malignancies.

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