52 research outputs found

    Biomarkers of fitness and welfare in dairy animals: healthy living

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    Invited ReviewIncreased animal productivity has reduced animal fitness, resulting in increased susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases, locomotion problems and subfertility. Future animal breeding strategies should focus on balancing high production levels with health status monitoring and improved welfare. Additionally, understanding how animals interact with their internal and external environment is essential for improving health, fitness, and welfare. In this context, the continuous validation of existing biomarkers and the discovery and field implementation of new biomarkers will enable us to understand the specific physiological process and regulatory mechanisms used by the organism to adapt to different environmental conditions. Thus, biomarkers may be used to monitor welfare and improve management and breeding strategies. In this article, we describe major achievements in the establishment of biomarkers in dairy cows and small ruminants. This review mainly focuses on the physiological biomarkers used to monitor animal responses to, and recovery from, environmental perturbations. We highlight future avenues for research in this field and present a timely positioning document to the scientific communityinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Domestic animal proteomics in the 21st century: a global retrospective and viewpoint analysis

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    Animal production and health are of significant economic importance, particularly regarding the world food supply. Animal and veterinary sciences have evolved immensely in the past six decades, particularly in genetics, nutrition, housing, management and health. To address major challenges such as those posed by climate change or metabolic disorders, it is of utmost importance to use state-of-the-art research tools. Proteomics and the other post-genomic tools (transcriptomics or metabolomics) are among them. Proteomics has experienced a considerable development over the last decades. This brought developments to different scientific fields. The use and adoption of proteomics tools in animal and veterinary sciences has some limitations (database availability or access to proteomics platforms and funding). As a result, proteomics' use by animal science researchers varies across the globe. In this viewpoint article, we focus on the developments of domestic animal proteomics over the last decade in different regions of the globe and how the researchers have coped with such challenges. In the second part of the article, we provide examples of funding, educational and laboratory establishment initiatives designed to foster the development of (animal-based) proteomics. International scientific collaboration is a definitive and key feature in the development and advancement of domestic animal proteomics. SIGNIFICANCE: Animal production and health are very important for food supply worldwide particularly as a source of proteinaceous foods. Animal and veterinary sciences have evolved immensely in the last decades. In order to address the major contemporary challenges facing animal and veterinary sciences, it is of utmost importance to use state-of-the-art research tools such as Proteomics and other Omics. Herein, we focus on the major developments in domestic animal proteomics worldwide during the last decade and how different regions of the world have used the technology in this specific research field. We address also major international efforts aiming to increase the research output in this area and highlight the importance of international cooperation to address specific problems inherent to domestic animal proteomics.Science and Technology Foundation (Lisbon, Portugal) through LEAF Research Center: UID/AGR/04129/2020 SFRH/BD/143992/2019; Science and Technology Foundation (Lisbon, Portugal):UID/Multi/04326/2020 16-02-05-FMP-12, 16-02-01-FMP-0014 Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (Brasilia, DF, Brazil) CNPq 409186/2018-0 Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES) 001 research program Animal health, environment and food safety of Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana - Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS) P4-0092 European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST): FA1002 European Commission FP7 VETMEDZG project: 621394 European Commission: KK. Marie Sklodowska-Curie European Joint Doctorate MANNA project 765423; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program 823839info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The application of omics in ruminant production: a review in the tropical and sub-tropical animal production context

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    The demand for animal products (e.g. dairy and beef) in tropical regions is expected to increase in parallel with the public demand for sustainable practices, due to factors such as population growth and climate change. The necessity to increase animal production output must be achieved with better management and production technologies. For this to happen, novel research methodologies, animal selection and postgenomic tools play a pivotal role. Indeed, improving breeder selection programs, the quality of meat and dairy products as well as animal health will contribute to higher sustainability and productivity. This would surely benefit regions where resource quality and quantity are increasingly unstable, and research is still very incipient, which is the case of many regions in the tropics. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate how omics-based approaches play a major role in animal science, particularly concerning ruminant production systems and research associated to the tropics and developing countriesinfo:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio

    Biomarkers of fitness and welfare in dairy cattle: healthy productivity

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    Milk production intensification has led to several unwanted aspects, such as sustainability issues and environmental pollution. Among these, increased milk outputs that have been achieved over the last 70 years have led to several health and pathophysiological conditions in high yielding dairy animals, including metabolic diseases that were uncommon in the past. Increased occurrence of diverse metabolic diseases in cattle and other domestic animals is a key feature of domestication that not only affects the animals\u2019 health and productivity, but also may have important and adverse health impacts on human consumers through the elevated use of drugs and antibiotics. These aspects will influence economical and ethical aspects in the near future. Therefore, finding and establishing proper biomarkers for early detection of metabolic diseases is of great interest. In the present review, recent work on the discovery of fitness, stress and welfare biomarkers in dairy cows is presented, focusing in particular on possible biomarkers of energy balance and oxidative stress in plasma and milk, and biomarkers of production-related diseases and decreased fertility
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