79 research outputs found

    DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DAS NOTIFICAÇÕES DE AIDS EM MULHERES NO MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO PAULO NOS PERÍODOS DE 1999-2001 E 2009-2011: UMA ANÁLISE SOB A ÓTICA DA DESIGUALDADE SOCIOESPACIAL

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    In Brazil, from 1980 to 2014, AIDS reached 757.042 cases, with concentration in the Southeast and South regions, which account for 75% of all Brazilian cases. Since 1989, the AIDS epidemic in Brazil has presented characteristics of feminization and impoverishment, indicating the overlapping of vulnerabilities in women, related to income, education, violence and gender inequity. The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the spatial distribution of AIDS in women aged 13 or older in the city of Sao Paulo, according to the administrative district of residence. The incidences of disease were analyzed from the perspective of social exclusion/inclusion and illiteracy in householder women in two periods: 1999-2001 and 2009-2011. The results denoted a correlation between the incidence of AIDS in women and the two indexes analyzed - social exclusion (IEX-Composed) and illiteracy in householder women (IEX-Illiterate householder women) in the second three-year period (2009- 2011). These findings indicate the need of implementing specific public policies for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in women, prioritizing those living in geographic areas with high inequality and social exclusion.No Brasil, desde 1980 até o ano de 2014, a Aids atingiu 757.042 indivíduos, com concentração nas regiões Sudeste e Sul, que somaram 75% dos casos do país. Desde 1989, a epidemia tem exibido características de feminização e pauperização, indicando a sobreposição de vulnerabilidades em mulheres, relativas à renda, escolaridade, violência e iniquidade de gênero. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever e avaliar a distribuição espacial da Aids em mulheres com 13 anos ou mais de idade no município de São Paulo, segundo distritos administrativos de residência. As incidências da doença foram analisadas sob a ótica da exclusão/inclusão social e do analfabetismo em chefes de família mulher em dois períodos: 1999-2001 e 2009-2011. Os resultados obtidos denotaram a existência de uma correlação entre a incidência de Aids em mulheres e os dois indicadores analisados - a exclusão social (IEX-Composto) e o analfabetismo em mulheres chefes de família (IEX-Chefe de família mulher sem alfabetização) no segundo triênio (2009-2011). Esses achados indicam a necessidade de implementação de políticas públicas específicas para a prevenção e o tratamento do HIV/Aids em mulheres, com priorização daquelas que vivem em áreas geográficas com elevada iniquidade e exclusão social

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of acute kidney injury in the intensive care units of developed and developing countries.

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    OBJECTIVES:Although the majority of the global population lives in developing countries, most of the epidemiological data related to intensive care unit (ICU) acute kidney injury (AKI) comes from developed countries. This systematic review aims to ascertain the methodology of studies on ICU AKI patients in developing and developed countries, to determine whether epidemiological comparisons between these two settings are possible, and to present a summary estimate of AKI incidence. METHODS:A systematic review of published studies reporting AKI in intensive care units (2005-2015) identified in PubMed, LILACS, and IBECs databases was conducted. We compared developed and developing countries by evaluating study methodology, AKI reference serum creatinine definitions, population characteristics, AKI incidence and mortality. AKI incidence was calculated with a random-effects model. RESULTS:Ninety-two studies were included, one of which reported data from both country categories: 60 from developed countries (1,057,332 patients) and 33 from developing countries (34,539 patients). In 78% of the studies, AKI was defined by the RIFLE, AKIN or KDIGO criteria. Oliguria had 11 different definitions and reference creatinine 23 different values. For the meta-analysis, 38 studies from developed and 18 from developing countries were selected, with similar AKI incidence: 39.3% and 35.1%, respectively. The need for dialysis, length of ICU stay and mortality were higher in developing countries. CONCLUSION:Although patient characteristics and AKI incidence were similar in developed and developing countries, main outcomes were worse in developing country studies. There are significant caveats when comparing AKI epidemiology in developed and developing countries, including lack of standardization of reference serum creatinine, oliguria and the timeframe for AKI assessment. Larger, prospective, multicenter studies from developing countries are urgently needed to capture AKI data from the overall population without ICU access

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of acute kidney injury in the intensive care units of developed and developing countries.

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    OBJECTIVES:Although the majority of the global population lives in developing countries, most of the epidemiological data related to intensive care unit (ICU) acute kidney injury (AKI) comes from developed countries. This systematic review aims to ascertain the methodology of studies on ICU AKI patients in developing and developed countries, to determine whether epidemiological comparisons between these two settings are possible, and to present a summary estimate of AKI incidence. METHODS:A systematic review of published studies reporting AKI in intensive care units (2005-2015) identified in PubMed, LILACS, and IBECs databases was conducted. We compared developed and developing countries by evaluating study methodology, AKI reference serum creatinine definitions, population characteristics, AKI incidence and mortality. AKI incidence was calculated with a random-effects model. RESULTS:Ninety-two studies were included, one of which reported data from both country categories: 60 from developed countries (1,057,332 patients) and 33 from developing countries (34,539 patients). In 78% of the studies, AKI was defined by the RIFLE, AKIN or KDIGO criteria. Oliguria had 11 different definitions and reference creatinine 23 different values. For the meta-analysis, 38 studies from developed and 18 from developing countries were selected, with similar AKI incidence: 39.3% and 35.1%, respectively. The need for dialysis, length of ICU stay and mortality were higher in developing countries. CONCLUSION:Although patient characteristics and AKI incidence were similar in developed and developing countries, main outcomes were worse in developing country studies. There are significant caveats when comparing AKI epidemiology in developed and developing countries, including lack of standardization of reference serum creatinine, oliguria and the timeframe for AKI assessment. Larger, prospective, multicenter studies from developing countries are urgently needed to capture AKI data from the overall population without ICU access

    Aids em homens no município de São Paulo, 1980–2012: análise espacial e espaço-temporal

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    OBJETIVOS: Identificar aglomerados espaciais e espaço-temporais de altas taxas de incidência de aids em homens residentes no município de São Paulo desde o primeiro caso da doença em 1980. MÉTODOS: As notificações de HIV/aids foram obtidas do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (57.440 homens) entre janeiro de 1980 e junho de 2012. Os casos foram geocodificados por endereço de residência; em seguida, análises de varredura puramente espacial, espaçotemporal e de variação espacial nas tendências temporais foram realizadas para três conjuntos de dados: total de casos de aids em homens com 13 anos de idade ou mais, homens com 50 anos ou mais e óbitos por aids. RESULTADOS: Foi possível geocodificar uma expressiva proporção de casos de aids (93,7%). Na análise de varredura puramente espacial, considerando-se todo o período avaliado, a epidemia de aids nos homens apresentou importante concentração espacial no Centro e em áreas contíguas das regiões Norte, Sudeste e Oeste do município, independentemente da faixa etária e da evolução para o óbito (riscos relativos entre 1,22 e 5,90). Levando-se em conta simultaneamente o espaço e o tempo, diversos aglomerados foram encontrados, espalhados por todas as regiões do município (riscos relativos entre 1,44 e 8,61). Na análise da variação espacial nas tendências temporais, os aglomerados nas regiões mais periféricas apresentaram maior incremento percentual anual das taxas da doença (de até 7,58%), denotando a tendência de “periferização” da epidemia nos homens na cidade de São Paulo. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo permitiu a detecção de aglomerados geográficos de alto risco para a aids nos homens, apontando para áreas prioritárias no município, tanto para ações programáticas como para nortear outros estudos.OBJECTIVES: To identify spatial and space-time clusters with high incidence rates of AIDS in men living in the city of São Paulo since the first case of the disease in 1980. METHODS: HIV/AIDS notifications were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (57,440 men) between January 1980 and June 2012. The cases were geocoded by residence address; then analyses of purely spatial, space-time and spatial variation in temporal trends were performed for three sets of data: total cases of AIDS in men aged 13 years or older, men aged 50 years or older, and deaths from AIDS. RESULTS: It was possible to geocode a significant proportion of AIDS cases (93.7%). In the purely spatial scanning analysis, considering the entire period evaluated, the AIDS epidemic in men presented an important spatial concentration in the Center and in contiguous areas of the North, Southeast and West regions of the municipality, regardless of age group and evolution to death (relative risks between 1.22 and 5.90). Considering space and time simultaneously, several clusters were found, spread throughout all regions of the municipality (relative risks between 1.44 and 8.61). In the analysis of spatial variation in temporal trends, the clusters in the most peripheral regions presented a higher annual percentage increase in disease rates (up to 7.58%), denoting the tendency of “peripherization” of the epidemic in men in the city of São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: This study allowed the detection of geographic clusters of high risk for AIDS in men, pointing to priority areas in the municipality, both for programmatic actions and to guide other studies

    Estado nutricional de idosos fumantes e ex-fumantes da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

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    RESUMO: Objetivo: A concomitância de fumo e maus hábitos alimentares representa uma piora no prognóstico da saúde e na qualidade de vida dos idosos. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar o estado nutricional de idosos fumantes e ex-fumantes residentes na cidade de São Paulo. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em 2010, com uma amostra representativa de 1.345 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais, que fazem parte da coorte de idosos acompanhados pelo Estudo Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE). Foram descritos os aspectos sociodemográficos, de saúde e nutricionais dos idosos de acordo com o uso de tabaco na vida. Resultados: A proporção de fumantes e ex-fumantes foi de, respectivamente, 12,9 e 54,7% para o sexo masculino; 11,0 e 25,2% para o sexo feminino; e de 11,8 e 37,2% para a população total do estudo. Para ambos os sexos, com o aumento da idade, diminuiu a proporção de fumantes. A proporção de idosas fumantes com ingestão adequada de frutas foi menor. Fumantes apresentaram pior estado nutricional, com menos refeições por dia e maior frequência de baixo peso. Conclusão: Considerando-se o impacto do hábito alimentar inadequado e de fumar sobre a saúde, os fumantes idosos merecem atenção especial sobre o seu estado nutricional

    O trabalho no corte de cana-de-açúcar, riscos e efeitos na saúde: revisão da literatura

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    Describe the main work risks for sugarcane cutters and their effects on workers’ health. METHODS: Critical review of articles, with bibliographic research carried out in the PubMed, SciELO Medline, and Lilacs databases. The following keywords were used: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-açúcar, and colheita de canade-açúcar. The inclusion criteria were articles published between January 1997 and June 2017, which evaluated working conditions and health effects on sugarcane cutters. Those that did not deal with the work impact of cutting burned and unburnt sugarcane in the cutter’s health were excluded. The final group of manuscripts was selected by the lead author of this study and reviewed by a co-author. Disagreements were resolved by consensus using the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and, where necessary, the final decision was made by consulting a third co-author. RESULTS: From the 89 articles found, 52 met the selection criteria and were evaluated. Studies have shown that cutters work under conditions of physical and mental overload, thermal overload, exposure to pollutants, and are subject to accidents. The main effects observed were respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal, heat stress, dehydration, genotoxic, and those due to accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Work on the manual cutting of sugarcane, especially of burned sugarcane, exposes workers to various risks, with different health impacts. Risk reduction for exposure to pollution and thermal and physical overload is required as a measure to preserve the health of the worker.OBJETIVO: Descrever os principais riscos do trabalho de cortadores de cana-de-açúcar e seus efeitos na saúde dos trabalhadores. MÉTODOS: Revisão critica de artigos, com pesquisa bibliográfica realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO Medline, e Lilacs. Foram empregadas as palavras-chave: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-açúcar e colheita de cana-de-açúcar. Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos publicados entre janeiro de 1997 a junho de 2017, que avaliaram as condições de trabalho e os efeitos na saúde em trabalhadores cortadores de cana-de-açúcar. Foram excluídos aqueles que não tratassem do impacto do trabalho no corte da cana-de-açúcar queimada e não queimada na saúde do cortador. O grupo final de manuscritos foi selecionado pelo autor principal deste estudo e revisado por um coautor. As discordâncias foram resolvidas por consenso usando os critérios de inclusão e exclusão predefinidos e, quando necessário, a decisão final foi realizada consultando um terceiro coautor. RESULTADOS: De 89 artigos encontrados, 52 atenderam aos critérios de seleção e foram avaliados. Os estudos mostraram que os cortadores trabalham em condições de sobrecarga física e mental, sobrecarga térmica, exposição a poluentes e sujeitos a acidentes. Os principais efeitos observados foram respiratórios, cardiovasculares, renais, osteomusculares, estresse por calor, desidratação, genotóxicos e decorrente de acidentes. CONCLUSÕES: O trabalho no corte manual da cana-de-açúcar, principalmente da cana-de-açúcar queimada, expõem os trabalhadores a diversos riscos, com variados impactos à saúde. A redução de riscos com exposição à poluição e sobrecarga térmica e física se impõe como medida para preservação da saúde do trabalhador

    Sugarcane cutting work, risks, and health effects: a literature review

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    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe the main work risks for sugarcane cutters and their effects on workers’ health. METHODS Critical review of articles, with bibliographic research carried out in the PubMed, SciELO Medline, and Lilacs databases. The following keywords were used: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-açú car , and colheita de cana -de-açúcar . The inclusion criteria were articles published between January 1997 and June 2017, which evaluated working conditions and health effects on sugarcane cutters. Those that did not deal with the work impact of cutting burned and unburnt sugarcane in the cutter’s health were excluded. The final group of manuscripts was selected by the lead author of this study and reviewed by a co-author. Disagreements were resolved by consensus using the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and, where necessary, the final decision was made by consulting a third co-author. RESULTS From the 89 articles found, 52 met the selection criteria and were evaluated. Studies have shown that cutters work under conditions of physical and mental overload, thermal overload, exposure to pollutants, and are subject to accidents. The main effects observed were respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal, heat stress, dehydration, genotoxic, and those due to accidents. CONCLUSIONS Work on the manual cutting of sugarcane, especially of burned sugarcane, exposes workers to various risks, with different health impacts. Risk reduction for exposure to pollution and thermal and physical overload is required as a measure to preserve the health of the worker

    Severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in pregnant women and neonatal outcomes, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009

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    <div><p>To investigate the factors associated with death and describe the gestational outcomes in pregnant women with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, we conducted a case-control study (deaths and recovered) in hospitalized pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in the state of São Paulo from June 9 to December 1, 2009. All cases were evaluated, and four controls that were matched by the epidemiological week of hospitalization of the case were randomly selected for each case. Cases and controls were selected from the National Disease Notification System-SINAN Influenza-web. The hospital records from 126 hospitals were evaluated, and home interviews were conducted using standardized forms. A total of 48 cases and 185 controls were investigated. Having had a previous health visit to a healthcare provider for an influenza episode before hospital admission was a risk factor for death (adjusted OR (<i>OR</i><sub><i>adj</i></sub><i>)</i> of 7.93, 95% CI 2.19–28.69). Although not significant in the multiple analysis (<i>OR</i><sub><i>adj</i></sub> of 2.13, 95% CI 0.91–5.00), the 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester deserves attention, with an OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.13–4.37 in the univariate analysis. Antiviral treatment was a protective factor when administered within 48 hours of symptom onset (<i>OR</i><sub><i>adj</i></sub> = 0.16, 95% CI 0.05–0.50) and from 48 to 72 hours (<i>OR</i><sub><i>adj</i></sub> = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.87). There was a higher proportion of fetal deaths and preterm births among cases (p = 0.001) and live births with low weight (p = 0.019), compared to control subjects who gave birth during hospitalization. After discharge, control subjects had a favorable neonatal outcome. Early antiviral treatment during the presence of a flu-like illness is an important factor in reducing mortality from influenza in pregnant women and unfavorable neonatal outcomes. It is important to monitor pregnant women, particularly in the 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester of gestation, with influenza illness for diagnosis and early treatment.</p></div

    Alcohol use among older adults: SABE cohort study, São Paulo, Brazil.

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    In recent years, Brazil has demonstrated a new demographic pattern characterized by a reduction in both birth and mortality rates and a significant increase in the number of older adults. The purpose of the present study was to describe the frequency of alcohol intake in a representative sample community of older adults in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, followed over a six-year period. A prospective Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE [Health, Wellbeing and Aging]) cohort study conducted in 2000 and 2006 in City of São Paulo, Brazil. 2,143 individuals aged 60 years or older selected through multi-stage sampling in the year 2000 (41.4% male and 58.6% women) and 1,115 individuals belonging to the follow-up cohort evaluated in 2006. The frequency of alcohol intake in the previous three months was obtained through self-reports of interviewees. The results demonstrate that in 2000, alcohol consumption was less than one day a week among 79.7% of the sample, one to three days a week among 13.0% and four or more days a week among 7.3%. In agreement with findings on other populations, consumption four or more days a week was more frequent among the male gender as well as those with greater schooling and income and good self-rated health (p<0.05). The longitudinal analysis demonstrated an increase in the frequency of alcohol consumption one to three times a week among the individuals in the 2006 follow-up study. In the present population-based sample, alcohol intake was low and the frequency of moderate alcohol consumption increased over the years. The present study can assist understanding the changes in alcohol intake among older adults throughout time and the ageing process
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