28 research outputs found

    Metastasis suppressor proteins in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

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    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) are common human carcinomas. Despite having metastasizing capacities, they usually show less aggressive progression compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of other organs. Metastasis suppressor proteins (MSPs) are a group of proteins that control and slow-down the metastatic process. In this study, we established the importance of seven well-defined MSPs including NDRG1, NM23-H1, RhoGDI2, E-cadherin, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 in cSCCs. Protein expression levels of the selected MSPs were detected in 32 cSCCs, 6 in situ SCCs, and two skin cell lines (HaCaT, A-431) by immunohistochemistry. The results were evaluated semi-quantitatively using the HSCORE system. In addition, mRNA expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR in the cell lines. The HSCOREs of NM23-H1 were similar in cSCCs and normal skin tissues, while RGHOGDI2, E-cadherin and AKAP12 were significantly downregulated in cSCCs compared to normal skin. The levels of MKK4, NDRG1 and CD82 were partially conserved in cSCCs. In stage I SCCs, nuclear staining of NM23-H1 (NM23-H1nuc) was significantly lower than in stage II/III SCCs. Only nuclear staining of MKK4 (MKK4nuc) showed significantly higher scores in in situ carcinomas compared to invasive SCCs. In conclusion, similar to other human tumors, we have demonstrated complex differential expression patterns for the MSPs in in-situ and invasive cSCCs. This complex MSP signature warrants further biological and experimental pathway research. ┬ę 2016 Elsevier GmbH

    Differential expression patterns of metastasis suppressor proteins in basal cell carcinoma

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    Background: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the NM23-H1, NDRG1, E-cadherin, RHOGDI2, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 metastasis suppressor proteins in BCCs. Methods: A total of 96 BCC and 10 normal skin samples were included for the immunohistochemical study. Eleven frozen BCC samples were also studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect the gene expression profile. Results: NM23-H1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all types of BCC. Significant cytoplasmic expression of NDRG1 and E-cadherin was also detected. However, AKAP12 and CD82/KAI1 expression was significantly decreased. The expressions of the other proteins were somewhere between the two extremes. Similarly, qRT-PCR analysis showed down-regulation of AKAP12 and up-regulation of NM23-H1 and NDRG1 in BCC. Morphologically aggressive BCCs showed significantly higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression scores and lower CD82/KAI1 scores than non-aggressive BCCs. Conclusion: The relatively preserved levels of NM23-H1, NDRG1, and E-cadherin proteins may have a positive effect on the non-metastasizing features of these tumors. ┬ę 2014 The International Society of Dermatology

    Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial investigation of silver-copper nanoalloys

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.Ag-Cu nanoalloys were synthesized by chemical co-reduction of their metal salts in aqueous solution with hydrazine hydrate, in the presence of complexing agent and stabilizer, preventing the oxidation of copper, as revealed by XPS. Their antibacterial behavior was tested against Escherichia coli strains, attesting far better ability of the Ag-Cu compared to Ag-only nanoparticles. ┬ę 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry

    Lack of association between RNASEL Arg462Gln variant and the risk of breast cancer

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    Background: The RNASEL G1385A variant was recently found to be implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Considering the function of RNase L and the pleiotropic effects of mutations associated with cancer, we sought to investigate whether the RNASEL G1385A variant is a risk factor for breast cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 453 breast cancer patients and 382 age- and sex-matched controls from Greece and Turkey were analyzed. Genotyping for the RNASEL G1385A variant was performed using an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS). Results: Statistical evaluation of the RNASEL G1385A genotype distribution among breast cancer patients and controls revealed no significant association between the presence of the risk genotype and the occurrence of breast cancer. Conclusion: Although an increasing number of studies report an association between the RNASEL G1385A variant and prostate cancer risk, this variant does not appear to be implicated in the development of breast cancer

    In vitro transfection of HeLa cells with temperature sensitive polycationic copolymers

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.In this study, we investigated different types of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and their block copolymers with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) as temperature-sensitive polycationic non-viral vectors for transfection of HeLa cells in cell culture media. First carboxyl-terminated poly(NIPA) was synthesized and then copolymerized with PEIs branched or linear and with two different molecular weights (2 and 25 kDa). Addition of PEI units to the poly(NIPA) chains increased the LCST values up to body temperature. Zeta potentials of the copolymers were significantly lower than the corresponding PEI homopolymers. A green fluorescent protein expressing plasmid was used as a model. Complexes of this plasmid both with PEIs and their copolymers were formed. The zeta potentials of these complexes were between -3.1 and +21.3. Higher values were observed for the complexes prepared with branched and higher molecular weight PEIs. Copolymerization caused a profound decrease in the positive charges. Particle sizes of the complexes were in the range of 190-1235 nm. Using high polymer/plasmid ratios caused aggregation. The smallest complexes were obtained with the copolymer prepared with branched PEI with 25-kDa molecular weight. Copolymers were able to squeeze plasmid DNA more at the body temperature. Cytotoxicity was observed with PEIs especially with the branched higher molecular weights. Copolymerization reduced the cytotoxicity. The best in vitro DNA uptake efficiency (70%) was achieved with the complex prepared with poly(NIPA)/PEI25B. However, poly(NIPA)/PEI25L was the most successful vector for an effective gene expression without any significant toxicity. ┬ę 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    p53 polymorphism influences response in cancer chemotherapy via modulation of p73-dependent apoptosis

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    Intact p73 function is shown to be an important determinant of cellular sensitivity to anticancer agents. Inhibition of p73 function by dominant-negative proteins or by mutant p53 abrogates apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by these agents. A polymorphism encoding either arginine (72R) or proline (72P) at codon 72 of p53 influences inhibition of p73 by a range of p53 mutants identified in squamous cancers. Clinical response following cisplatin-based chemo-radiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer is influenced by this polymorphism, cancers expressing 72R mutants having lower response rates than those expressing 72P mutants. Polymorphism in p53 may influence individual responsiveness to cancer therapy

    p53 polymorphism influences response in cancer chemotherapy via modulation of p73-dependent apoptosis

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    Intact p73 function is shown to be an important determinant of cellular sensitivity to anticancer agents. Inhibition of p73 function by dominant-negative proteins or by mutant p53 abrogates apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by these agents. A polymorphism encoding either arginine (72R) or proline (72P) at codon 72 of p53 influences inhibition of p73 by a range of p53 mutants identified in squamous cancers. Clinical response following cisplatin-based chemo-radiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer is influenced by this polymorphism, cancers expressing 72R mutants having lower response rates than those expressing 72P mutants. Polymorphism in p53 may influence individual responsiveness to cancer therapy

    Epigenetic inactivation of 14-3-3 ¤â in oral carcinoma : association with p16INK4a silencing and human papillomavirus negativity

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    In vitro studies have identified 14-3-3¤â as a regulator of senescence in human keratinocytes. To assess its contribution to squamous neoplasia, we have analyzed genetic and epigenetic changes in this gene in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and dysplastic lesions of the oral cavity. No mutations were detected in the coding sequence of 14-3-3¤â in 20 oral carcinomas, and there was loss of heterozygosity in only 7 of 40 informative cases. In contrast to the absence of genetic change, aberrant methylation within 14-3-3¤â was detected in 32 of 92 squamous cell carcinomas and in 3 of 6 oral dysplasias and was associated with reduced or absent expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Methylation was not detected in matched, normal epithelial tissue controls. Carcinomas in which 14-3-3¤â was methylated were significantly more likely to lack DNA sequences from human papillomavirus and to have coincident methylation of p16INK4a than cases that expressed 14-3-3¤â. Methylation was detected in SCC, both wild-type and mutant for p53, but was more commonly detected in cancers with wild-type p53. These results implicate coincident epigenetic abrogation of function in both ¤â and p16INK4a in a subset of SCCs of the oral cavity

    Identification of genes induced by BRCA1 in breast cancer cells

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.Inherited mutations of the BRCA1 gene predispose to breast, ovarian, and other cancers. The role of the BRCA1 gene in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity is linked to a number of biological properties of its protein product, including transcriptional regulation. In the present study, we have used suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) to identify genes induced by BRCA1 by comparing control MCF7 breast carcinoma cells (driver) with MCF7 cells ectopically expressing BRCA1 (tester) and generated a forward subtracted cDNA library. We screened 500 putative positive clones from this library. Two hundred and ten of these clones were positive by differential screening with forward and reverse subtracted probes and the 65 cDNA clones which showed more than fivefold increase were selected for sequencing analysis. We clustered 46 different genes that share high homology with sequences in the GenBank/EMBL databases. Among these, 30 were genes whose function had been previously identified while the remaining 16 clones were genes with,unknown functions. Of particular interest, BRCA1 gene induces the expression of genes encoding DNA repair proteins RAD21 and MSH2, ERBB2/HER2 interacting protein ERBIN, meningioma-associated protein MAC30, and a candidate ovarian tumour-suppressor OVCA1. Northern and Western blot analyses confirmed that the expression of these five genes are up-regulated following BRCA1 overexpression in MCF7 and UBR60-bcl2 cells. This is the first study reporting a set of BRCA1-induced genes in breast carcinoma cells by the SSH technique. We suggest that some known genes identified in this study may provide new insights into the tumour-suppressor function of BRCA1. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved
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