561 research outputs found

    Quantum critical behavior of the hyperkagome magnet Mn3CoSi

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    β-Mn-type family alloys Mn3TX (T = Co, Rh, and Ir; X = Si and Ge) have a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AF) corner-shared triangular network, i.e., the hyperkagome lattice. The antiferromagnet Mn3RhSi shows magnetic short-range order over a wide temperature range of approximately 500 K above the Néel temperature TN of 190 K. In this family of compounds, as the lattice parameter decreases, the long-range magnetic ordering temperature decreases. Mn3CoSi has the smallest lattice parameter and the lowest TN in the family. The quantum critical point (QCP) from AF to the quantum paramagnetic state is expected near a cubic lattice parameter of 6.15 Å. Although the Néel temperature of Mn3CoSi is only 140 K, the emergence of the quantum critical behavior in Mn3CoSi is discussed. We study how the magnetic short-range order appears in Mn3CoSi by using neutron scattering, μSR, and bulk characterization such as specific heat capacity. According to the results, the neutron scattering intensity of the magnetic short-range order in Mn3CoSi does not change much at low temperatures from that of Mn3RhSi, although the μSR short-range order temperature of Mn3CoSi is largely suppressed to 240 K from that of Mn3RhSi. Correspondingly, the volume fraction of the magnetic short-range order regions, as shown by the initial asymmetry drop ratio of μSR above TN, also becomes small. Instead, the electronic-specific heat coefficient γ of Mn3CoSi is the largest in this Mn3T Si system, possibly due to the low-energy spin fluctuation near the quantum critical point

    Flow chart of website selection.

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    The top square indicates the initial website selection. The lower squares show the excluded websites and the numbers for analysis.</p

    Possible interpretations of the joint observations of UHECR arrival directions using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    Antibody level dynamics until after the third dose of COVID-19 vaccination

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    The antibody titers of volunteers, including elderly people, were investigated after the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) as an mRNA vaccine against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Serum samples were collected from 105 volunteers (44 healthcare workers and 61 elderly people) 7–14 days after the second vaccine dose, and antibody titers were measured. The antibody titers of study participants in their 20s were significantly higher than those of other age groups. Furthermore, the antibody titers of participants aged <60 years were significantly higher than those of participants aged ≥60 years. Serum samples were repeatedly collected from 44 healthcare workers until after the third vaccine dose. Eight months after the second round of vaccination, the antibody titer levels decreased to the same level as that before the second vaccine dose. After the third booster vaccination, the antibody titer recovered to the same level as that after the second dose. Neutralizing activities were also investigated at four time points before and after the second vaccine dose. The antibody titers and neutralizing activity were positively correlated. Therefore, neutralizing activity can be predicted by measuring the antibody titer. In conclusion, the antibody titers in the elderly population were significantly lower than those in the younger population. Although the antibody titers increased following vaccination, their levels showed a decline after several months, returning to the same level as that after a single dose of mRNA vaccination. The antibody titer levels recovered after the third dose of vaccination, which had already been administered in Japan. Routine administration of vaccine should be considered in the future

    Characterization and organelle genome sequencing of Pyropia species from Myanmar

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    Abstract Pyropia is a genus comprising red algae of the Bangiaceae family that is commonly found in intertidal zones worldwide. However, understanding of Pyropia species that are prone to tropical regions remains limited despite recent breakthroughs in genomic research. Within the realm of Pyropia species thriving in tropical regions, P. vietnamensis stands out as a widely recognized species. In this study, we aimed to investigate Pyropia species in the southwest coast of Myanmar using physiological and molecular approaches, culture-based analyses, chloroplast rbcL and nuclear SSU gene sequencing, and whole chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequencing. Physiological analysis showed that the Myanmar samples were more heat-tolerant than their Japanese counterparts, including those of subtropical origin. Additionally, molecular characterization revealed that the Myanmar samples were closely related to P. vietnamensis from India. This study is the first to sequence the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of Pyropia species from tropical regions. A unique deletion event was observed within a ribosomal RNA gene cluster in the chloroplast genome of the studied Pyropia species, which is a deviation from the usual characteristics of most Pyropia species. This study improves current understanding of the physiological and molecular characteristics of this comparatively understudied Pyropia species that grows in tropical regions

    Chemically-defined cytokine-free human hematopoietic stem cell expansion

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    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a rare cell type that reconstitute the entire blood and immune systems after transplantation and can be used as a curative cell therapy for a variety of haematological diseases1,2. However, the low number of HSCs in the body makes both biological analyses and clinical application difficult, and the limited extent to which human HSCs can be expanded ex vivo remains a substantial barrier to the wider and safer therapeutic use of HSC transplantation3. Although various reagents have been tested in attempts to stimulate the expansion of human HSCs, cytokines have long been thought to be essential for supporting HSCs ex vivo4. Here we report the establishment of a culture system that allows the long-term ex vivo expansion of human HSCs, achieved through the complete replacement of exogenous cytokines and albumin with chemical agonists and a caprolactam-based polymer. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase activator, in combination with a thrombopoietin-receptor agonist and the pyrimidoindole derivative UM171, were sufficient to stimulate the expansion of umbilical cord blood HSCs that are capable of serial engraftment in xenotransplantation assays. Ex vivo HSC expansion was further supported by split-clone transplantation assays and single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis. Our chemically defined expansion culture system will help to advance clinical HSC therapies

    Question classification (n = 83).

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    ObjectivesThis study aimed to characterize the content of frequently asked questions about the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the internet in Japan and to evaluate the quality of websites related to the questions.MethodsWe searched terms on the treatment of RA on Google and extracted frequently asked questions generated by the Google "people also ask" function. The website that answered each question was also obtained. We categorized the questions based on the content. The quality of the websites was evaluated using the brief DISCERN, Journal of American Medical Association benchmark criteria, and Clear Communication Index.ResultsOur search yielded 83 questions and the corresponding websites. The most frequently asked questions were regarding the timeline of treatment (n = 17, 23%) and those on the timeline of the clinical course (n = 13, 16%). The median score of brief DISCERN was 11 points, with only 7 (8%) websites having sufficient quality. Websites having sufficient quality based on the Journal of American Medical Association benchmark criteria and Clear Communication Index were absent.ConclusionsThe questions were most frequently related to the timeline of treatment and clinical course. Physicians should provide such information to patients with RA in the counseling and education materials.</div

    Question classification (in Japanese, n = 83).

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    ObjectivesThis study aimed to characterize the content of frequently asked questions about the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the internet in Japan and to evaluate the quality of websites related to the questions.MethodsWe searched terms on the treatment of RA on Google and extracted frequently asked questions generated by the Google "people also ask" function. The website that answered each question was also obtained. We categorized the questions based on the content. The quality of the websites was evaluated using the brief DISCERN, Journal of American Medical Association benchmark criteria, and Clear Communication Index.ResultsOur search yielded 83 questions and the corresponding websites. The most frequently asked questions were regarding the timeline of treatment (n = 17, 23%) and those on the timeline of the clinical course (n = 13, 16%). The median score of brief DISCERN was 11 points, with only 7 (8%) websites having sufficient quality. Websites having sufficient quality based on the Journal of American Medical Association benchmark criteria and Clear Communication Index were absent.ConclusionsThe questions were most frequently related to the timeline of treatment and clinical course. Physicians should provide such information to patients with RA in the counseling and education materials.</div
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