32 research outputs found

    Recent Research Progress of Mn4+-Doped A2MF6 (A = Li, Na, K, Cs, or Rb; M = Si, Ti, Ge, or Sn) Red Phosphors Based on a Core–Shell Structure

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    White light emitting diodes (WLEDs) are widely used due to their advantages of high efficiency, low electricity consumption, long service life, quick response time, environmental protection, and so on. The addition of red phosphor is beneficial to further improve the quality of WLEDs. The search for novel red phosphors has focused mainly on Eu2+ ion- and Mn4+ ion-doped compounds. Both of them have emissions in the red region, absorption in blue region, and similar quantum yields. Eu2+-doped phosphors possess a rather broad-band emission with a tail in the deep red spectral range, where the sensitivity of the human eye is significantly reduced, resulting in a decrease in luminous efficacy of WLEDs. Mn4+ ions provide a narrow emission band ~670 nm in oxide hosts, which is still almost unrecognizable to the human eye. Mn4+-doped fluoride phosphors have become one of the research hotspots in recent years due to their excellent fluorescent properties, thermal stability, and low cost. They possess broad absorption in the blue region, and a series of narrow red emission bands at around 630 nm, which are suitable to serve as red emitting components of WLEDs. However, the problem of easy hydrolysis in humid environments limits their application. Recent studies have shown that constructing a core–shell structure can effectively improve the water resistance of Mn4+-doped fluorides. This paper outlines the research progress of Mn4+-doped fluoride A2MF6 (A = Li, Na, K, Cs, or Rb; M = Si, Ti, Ge or Sn), which has been based on the core–shell structure in recent years. From the viewpoint of the core–shell structure, this paper mainly emphasizes the shell layer classification, synthesis methods, luminescent mechanism, the effect on luminescent properties, and water resistance, and it also gives some applications in terms of WLEDs. Moreover, it proposes challenges and developments in the future

    Relationship between TIM3 Expression on Peripheral T Lymphocytes and Post-Stroke Depression

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    Background: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM3) is a regulatory molecule expressed on a variety of cell types, including CD3+ T cells. Few studies have been conducted to look into the correlation between TIM3 expression on peripheral T lymphocytes and post-stroke depression (PSD).Objective: To investigate the relationship between TIM3 expressions on peripheral T lymphocytes in PSD patients.Methods: Acute stroke patients without depression (NPSD) (n=65), PSD patients (n=23), and body mass index (BMI), age, and education-matched healthy controls (HC) (n=59) were enrolled. Using flow cytometry, TIM3 expression was examined in the peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes. Evaluation of the depressive severity in PSD patients was assessed using a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18. We further assessed the relationships between TIM3 expression, serum cytokine levels, and the HAM-D-17 scores.Results: CD3+ CD4+ T cells reduced significantly in PSD patients compared with the NPSD patients and HC. Both NPSD patients and PSD patients had a significant increase in TIM3 expression in their peripheral CD3+ CD4+ T lymphocytes, compared with HC. In PSD patients, a higher frequency of peripheral CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes showed significant expression of TIM3 compared to NPSD patients and HC. High TIM3 level on peripheral CD3+ CD8+ T lymphocytes was positively associated with the HAM-D score.Conclusion: Patients with PSD exhibit immune dysfunction. TIM3 might contribute to the development and severity of PSD, making it a potential therapeutic target

    Multi-modal molecular programs regulate melanoma cell state.

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    Melanoma cells display distinct intrinsic phenotypic states. Here, we seek to characterize the molecular regulation of these states using multi-omic analyses of whole exome, transcriptome, microRNA, long non-coding RNA and DNA methylation data together with reverse-phase protein array data on a panel of 68 highly annotated early passage melanoma cell lines. We demonstrate that clearly defined cancer cell intrinsic transcriptomic programs are maintained in melanoma cells ex vivo and remain highly conserved within melanoma tumors, are associated with distinct immune features within tumors, and differentially correlate with checkpoint inhibitor and adoptive T cell therapy efficacy. Through integrative analyses we demonstrate highly complex multi-omic regulation of melanoma cell intrinsic programs that provide key insights into the molecular maintenance of phenotypic states. These findings have implications for cancer biology and the identification of new therapeutic strategies. Further, these deeply characterized cell lines will serve as an invaluable resource for future research in the field

    How to Evaluate the Rice Cultivation Suitability?

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    To rationally allocate farmland resources, and scientifically make farming industrial planning, we take Yizheng City in Jiangsu Province as the research object, and select 13 indicators. Based on Farmland Resources Management Information System in Yizheng City, we establish AHP model, and membership function model, for the evaluation of farmland suitability of rice. The results show that the farmland area in the highly suitable areas accounts for 10.2% of the total farmland area; the farmland area in the suitable areas accounts for 56.08% of the total farmland area; the farmland area in the marginally suitable areas accounts for 25.50% of the total farmland area; the farmland area in the unsuitable areas accounts for 8.22% of the total farmland area. There is significant positive correlation between the actual yield of rice surveyed and suitability index obtained through evaluation (R2=0.1964, 319 samples); the actual yield of rice in the highly suitable areas is higher than in the marginally suitable areas and suitable areas, and the rice yield is the lowest in the unsuitable areas

    The asparagus genome sheds light on the origin and evolution of a young Y chromosome

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    Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes many times across the eukaryote phylogeny. Several models have been proposed to explain this transition, some involving male and female sterility mutations linked in a region of suppressed recombination between X and Y (or Z/W, U/V) chromosomes. Comparative and experimental analysis of a reference genome assembly for a double haploid YY male garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) individual implicates separate but linked genes as responsible for sex determination. Dioecy has evolved recently within Asparagus and sex chromosomes are cytogenetically identical with the Y, harboring a megabase segment that is missing from the X. We show that deletion of this entire region results in a male-to-female conversion, whereas loss of a single suppressor of female development drives male-to-hermaphrodite conversion. A single copy anther-specific gene with a male sterile Arabidopsis knockout phenotype is also in the Y-specific region, supporting a two-gene model for sex chromosome evolution

    The asparagus genome sheds light on the origin and evolution of a young Y chromosome

    No full text
    Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes many times across the eukaryote phylogeny. Several models have been proposed to explain this transition, some involving male and female sterility mutations linked in a region of suppressed recombination between X and Y (or Z/W, U/V) chromosomes. Comparative and experimental analysis of a reference genome assembly for a double haploid YY male garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) individual implicates separate but linked genes as responsible for sex determination. Dioecy has evolved recently within Asparagus and sex chromosomes are cytogenetically identical with the Y, harboring a megabase segment that is missing from the X. We show that deletion of this entire region results in a male-to-female conversion, whereas loss of a single suppressor of female development drives male-to-hermaphrodite conversion. A single copy anther-specific gene with a male sterile Arabidopsis knockout phenotype is also in the Y-specific region, supporting a two-gene model for sex chromosome evolution

    Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

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    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009–2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were 84.0 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 25.1 μg/m3 and 41.7 μg/m3, respectively. An increase of 10-μg/m3 in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide was associated with 4.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–7.38), 2.97 (95% CI −2.01–7.95), 29.98 (95% CI 19.21–40.76) and 16.58 (95% CI 8.19–24.97) YLL, respectively, and 0.53% (95% CI 0.29–0.76%), 0.57% (95% CI 0.20–0.95%), 2.89% (95% CI 2.04–3.76%), and 1.65% (95% CI 1.01–2.30%) increase of daily death counts, respectively. The impact of air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0–3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China

    Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Astragaloside IV in Systemic Sclerosis

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    Objective: To evaluate the anti-fibrotic effects of Astragaloside IV in systemic sclerosis. Methods: Treated or untreated systemic sclerosis (SSc) and normal fibroblast isolated from corresponding pairs were utilized to detect expression of collagen and fibronectin by western blot, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence staining and histopathological examination. SSc mouse model induced by bleomycin was used to evaluate the effects of the drug in vivo. Results: Compared to normal fibroblast (NF), the expression of collagen and fibronectin in SSc (SScF) dramatically increased, and this could be reduced by Astragaloside IV (AST) in a dose- or time-dependent manner at both protein and mRNA levels. Administration of Astragaloside IV consistently decreased collagen formation and partially restored the structure, as well as suppressing collagen and fibronectin expression in the skin lesions of SSc-model mice. Mechanistically, Astragaloside IV-induced fibrosis reduction may be due to deregulation of Smad 3/Fli-1, the major mediators of the fibrotic response and key molecules for TGF-β signaling. Astragaloside IV also decreased the level of p-SMAD3 and completely blocked its relocation into the nuclei. Conclusion: Astragaloside IV attenuates fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β-Smads3 axis in systemic sclerosis

    Complete Genome Analysis of the C4 Subgenotype Strains of Enterovirus 71: Predominant Recombination C4 Viruses Persistently Circulating in China for 14 Years

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    <div><p>Genetic recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. To investigate the genetic characterization and the potential recombination of enterovirus 71 (EV71) circulating in China, we determined the 16 complete genome sequences of EV71 isolated from Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) patients during the large scale outbreak and non-outbreak years since 1998 in China. The full length genome sequences of 16 Chinese EV71 in present study were aligned with 186 genome sequences of EV71 available from GenBank, including 104 China mainland and 82 international sequences, covering the time period of 1970–2011. The oldest strains of each subgenotype of EV71 and prototype strains of HEV-A were included to do the phylogenetic and Simplot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all Chinese strains were clustered into C4 subgenotype of EV71, except for HuB/CHN/2009 clustered into A and Xiamen/CHN/2009 clustered into B5 subgenotype. Most of C4 EV71 were clustered into 2 predominant evolutionary branches: C4b and C4a evolutionary brunches. Our comprehensive recombination analysis showed the evidence of genome recombination of subgenotype C4 (including C4a and C4b) sequences between structural genes from genotype C EV71 and non-structural genes from the prototype strains of CAV16, 14 and 4, but the evidence of intratypic recombination between C4 strains and B subgenotype was not enough strong. This intertypic recombination C4 viruses were first seen in 1998 and became the predominant endemic viruses circulating in China mainland for at least 14 years. A shift between C4a and C4b evolutionary brunches of C4 recombination viruses were observed, and C4a viruses have been associated with large scale nationwide HFMD outbreak with higher morbidity and mortality since 2007.</p> </div
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