93 research outputs found

    Molecular Clouds in the Galactic Plane from ll = [59.75^\circ, 74.75^\circ] and bb = [-5.25^\circ, +5.25^\circ]

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    In this paper we present the distribution of molecular gas in the Milky Way Galactic plane from ll = [59.75, 74.75]^{\circ} and bb = [{-}5.25, +5.25]^{\circ}, using the MWISP 12^{12}CO/13^{13}CO/C18O\rm {C}^{18}{O} emission line data. The molecular gas in this region can be mainly attributed to the Local spur, Local arm, Perseus arm, and Outer arm. Statistics of the physical properties of the molecular gas in each arm, such as excitation temperature, optical depth, and column density, are presented. Using the DBSCAN algorithm, we identified 15 extremely distant molecular clouds with kinematic distances of 14.72-17.77 kpc and masses of 363-520 M_{\odot}, which we find could be part of the Outer Scutum-Centaurus (OSC) arm identified by \cite{2011ApJ...734L..24D} and \cite{2015ApJ...798L..27S}. It is also possible that, 12 of these 15 extremely distant molecular clouds constitute an independent structure between the Outer and the OSC arms or a spur. There exist two Gaussian components in the vertical distribution of the molecular gas in the Perseus spiral arm. These two Gaussian components correspond to two giant filaments parallel to the Galactic plane. We find an upward warping of the molecular gas in the Outer spiral arm with a displacement of around 270 pc with respect to the Galactic mid-plane.Comment: 33 pages, 19 figure

    Inferior plant competitor allocates more biomass to belowground as a result of greater competition for resources in heterogeneous habitats

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    Nutrient heterogeneity in soil widely exists in nature and can have significant impacts on plant growth, biomass allocation, and competitive interactions. However, limited research has been done to investigate the interspecific competitive intensity between two clonal species in a heterogeneous habitat. Therefore, this greenhouse experiment was conducted with two clonal species, Phragmites australis and Scirpus planiculumis, exposed to heterogeneous and homogeneous patches of soil nutrients at five different planting ratios (0:4, 1:3, 2:2, 3:1 and 4:0), to assess the effects of both soil heterogeneity and interspecific competition on plant growth. It was found that soil nutrient heterogeneity significantly enhanced P. australis’ interspecific competitive capacity and biomass by promoting a 20% increase in belowground allocation. Interestingly, the planting ratio did not affect the magnitude of this net outcome. In contrast, the superior competitor S. planiculumis did not exhibit significant change of growth indicators to the heterogeneous soil patches. These findings imply that the uncertainties associated with human-induced redistribution of plant species may lead to a shift in dominance from other species to those like P. australis, which have strong nutrient foraging abilities in response to heterogeneity in emergent wetland plant communities

    Tunable Interband Transitions in Twisted h-BN/Graphene Heterostructures

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    In twisted h-BN/graphene heterostructures, the complex electronic properties of the fast-traveling electron gas in graphene are usually considered to be fully revealed. However, the randomly twisted heterostructures may also have unexpected transition behaviors, which may influence the device performance. Here, we study the twist angle-dependent coupling effects of h-BN/graphene heterostructures using monochromatic electron energy loss spectroscopy. We find that the moir\'e potentials alter the band structure of graphene, resulting in a redshift of the intralayer transition at the M-point, which becomes more pronounced up to 0.25 eV with increasing twist angle. Furthermore, the twisting of the Brillouin zone of h-BN relative to the graphene M-point leads to tunable vertical transition energies in the range of 5.1-5.6 eV. Our findings indicate that twist-coupling effects of van der Waals heterostructures should be carefully considered in device fabrications, and the continuously tunable interband transitions through the twist angle can serve as a new degree of freedom to design optoelectrical devices

    Local GABAergic signaling within sensory ganglia controls peripheral nociceptive transmission

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    The integration of somatosensory information is generally assumed to be a function of the central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe fully functional GABAergic communication within rodent peripheral sensory ganglia and show that it can modulate transmission of pain-related signals from the peripheral sensory nerves to the CNS. We found that sensory neurons express major proteins necessary for GABA synthesis and release and that sensory neurons released GABA in response to depolarization. In vivo focal infusion of GABA or GABA reuptake inhibitor to sensory ganglia dramatically reduced acute peripherally induced nociception and alleviated neuropathic and inflammatory pain. In addition, focal application of GABA receptor antagonists to sensory ganglia triggered or exacerbated peripherally induced nociception. We also demonstrated that chemogenetic or optogenetic depolarization of GABAergic dorsal root ganglion neurons in vivo reduced acute and chronic peripherally induced nociception. Mechanistically, GABA depolarized the majority of sensory neuron somata, yet produced a net inhibitory effect on the nociceptive transmission due to the filtering effect at nociceptive fiber T-junctions. Our findings indicate that peripheral somatosensory ganglia represent a hitherto underappreciated site of somatosensory signal integration and offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention