1,068 research outputs found

    Simple coordination complex-derived three-dimensional mesoporous graphene as an efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst

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    3D mesoporous graphene (mesoG) was synthesized from [Ni<inf>2</inf>(EDTA)] (EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetate). The material is comprised of interconnected 4 nm-sized hollow carbon shells composed of 3-4 layers of graphene and exhibits high bifunctional electrocatalytic activity as well as high durability for use in oxygen evolution and reduction reactions. This journal is ??? 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistryopen11

    Drosophila CrebB is a Substrate of the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay Pathway that Sustains Circadian Behaviors

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    Post-transcriptional regulation underlies the circadian control of gene expression and animal behaviors. However, the role of mRNA surveillance via the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway in circadian rhythms remains elusive. Here, we report that Drosophila NMD pathway acts in a subset of circadian pacemaker neurons to maintain robust 24 h rhythms of free-running locomotor activity. RNA interference-mediated depletion of key NMD factors in timeless-expressing clock cells decreased the amplitude of circadian locomotor behaviors. Transgenic manipulation of the NMD pathway in clock neurons expressing a neuropeptide PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) was sufficient to dampen or lengthen free-running locomotor rhythms. Confocal imaging of a transgenic NMD reporter revealed that arrhythmic Clock mutants exhibited stronger NMD activity in PDF-expressing neurons than wild-type. We further found that hypomorphic mutations in Suppressor with morphogenetic effect on geni-talia 5 (Smg5) or Smg6 impaired circadian behaviors. These NMD mutants normally developed PDF-expressing clock neurons and displayed daily oscillations in the transcript levels of core clock genes. By contrast, the loss of Smg5 or Smg6 function affected the relative transcript levels of cAMP response element-binding protein B (CrebB) in an isoform-specific manner. Moreover, the overexpression of a transcriptional repressor form of CrebB rescued free-running locomotor rhythms in Smg5-depleted flies. These data demonstrate that CrebB is a rate-limiting substrate of the genetic NMD pathway important for the behavioral output of circadian clocks in Drosophila

    TADPOLE Challenge: Accurate Alzheimer's disease prediction through crowdsourced forecasting of future data

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    The TADPOLE Challenge compares the performance of algorithms at predicting the future evolution of individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease. TADPOLE Challenge participants train their models and algorithms on historical data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Participants are then required to make forecasts of three key outcomes for ADNI-3 rollover participants: clinical diagnosis, ADAS-Cog 13, and total volume of the ventricles -- which are then compared with future measurements. Strong points of the challenge are that the test data did not exist at the time of forecasting (it was acquired afterwards), and that it focuses on the challenging problem of cohort selection for clinical trials by identifying fast progressors. The submission phase of TADPOLE was open until 15 November 2017; since then data has been acquired until April 2019 from 219 subjects with 223 clinical visits and 150 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, which was used for the evaluation of the participants' predictions. Thirty-three teams participated with a total of 92 submissions. No single submission was best at predicting all three outcomes. For diagnosis prediction, the best forecast (team Frog), which was based on gradient boosting, obtained a multiclass area under the receiver-operating curve (MAUC) of 0.931, while for ventricle prediction the best forecast (team EMC1), which was based on disease progression modelling and spline regression, obtained mean absolute error of 0.41% of total intracranial volume (ICV). For ADAS-Cog 13, no forecast was considerably better than the benchmark mixed effects model (BenchmarkME), provided to participants before the submission deadline. Further analysis can help understand which input features and algorithms are most suitable for Alzheimer's disease prediction and for aiding patient stratification in clinical trials.Comment: 10 pages, 1 figure, 4 tables. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1805.0390

    Achieving Fairness-aware Two-level Scheduling for Heterogeneous Distributed Systems

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    In a heterogeneous distributed system composed of various types of computing platforms such as supercomputers, grids, and clouds, a two-level scheduling approach can be used to effectively distribute resources of the platforms to users in the first-level, and map tasks of the users in nodes for each platform in the second-level for executing many-task applications. When scheduling heterogeneous resources, service providers of the system should consider the fairness among multiple users as well as the system efficiency. However, the fairness cannot be achieved by simply distributing an equal amount of resources from each platform to every user. In this paper, we investigate how to address the fairness issue among multiple users in a heterogeneous distributed system. We present three first-level resource allocation policies of a provider affinity first policy, an application affinity first policy, and a platform affinity based round-robin policy, and two second-level task mapping policies of a most affected first policy and a co-runner affinity based round-robin policy. Using trace-based simulations, we evaluate the performance of various combinations of the first and second level scheduling policies. Our extensive simulation results demonstrate that the first-level policy plays a crucial role to achieve relatively good fairness
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