1,226 research outputs found

    The importance of internal facial features in learning new faces.

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    For familiar faces, the internal features (eyes, nose, and mouth) are known to be differentially salient for recognition compared to external features such as hairstyle. Two experiments are reported that investigate how this internal feature advantage accrues as a face becomes familiar. In Experiment 1, we tested the contribution of internal and external features to the ability to generalize from a single studied photograph to different views of the same face. A recognition advantage for the internal features over the external features was found after a change of viewpoint, whereas there was no internal feature advantage when the same image was used at study and test. In Experiment 2, we removed the most salient external feature (hairstyle) from studied photographs and looked at how this affected generalization to a novel viewpoint. Removing the hair from images of the face assisted generalization to novel viewpoints, and this was especially the case when photographs showing more than one viewpoint were studied. The results suggest that the internal features play an important role in the generalization between different images of an individual's face by enabling the viewer to detect the common identity-diagnostic elements across non-identical instances of the face

    Emotion processing in infancy: specificity in risk for social anxiety and associations with two year outcomes

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    The current study examined the specificity of patterns of responding to high and low intensity negative emotional expressions of infants of mothers with social phobia, and their association with child outcomes at two years of age. Infants of mothers with social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) or no history of anxiety were shown pairs of angry and fearful emotional expressions at 10 weeks of age. Symptoms of social withdrawal, anxiety and sleep problems were assessed at two years of age. Only infants of mothers with social phobia showed a tendency to look away from high intensity fear faces; however infants of mothers with both social phobia and GAD showed a bias towards high intensity angry faces. Among the offspring of mothers with social phobia, anxiety symptoms at two years of age were associated with a preference for high intensity fear faces in infancy. The reverse pattern was found amongst the offspring of non-anxious mothers. These findings suggest a possible specific response to emotional expressions among the children of mothers with social phobia

    Theory and simulations of a gyrotron backward wave oscillator using a helical interaction waveguide

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    A gyrotron backward wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) with a helically corrugated interaction waveguide demonstrated its potential as a powerful microwave source with high efficiency and a wide frequency tuning range. This letter presents the theory describing the dispersion properties of such a waveguide and the linear beam-wave interaction. Numerical simulation results using the PIC code MAGIC were found to be in excellent agreement with the output measured from a gyro-BWO experiment

    Systematic uncertainties in the precise determination of the strangeness magnetic moment of the nucleon

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    Systematic uncertainties in the recent precise determination of the strangeness magnetic moment of the nucleon are identified and quantified. In summary, G_M^s = -0.046 \pm 0.019 \mu_N.Comment: Invited presentation at PAVI '04, International Workshop on Parity Violation and Hadronic Structure, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble, France, June 8-11, 2004. 7 pages, 16 figure

    Interaction between social categories in the composite face paradigm.

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    The composite face paradigm (Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987) is widely used to demonstrate holistic perception of faces (Rossion, 2013). In the paradigm, parts from different faces (usually the top and bottom halves) are recombined. The principal criterion for holistic perception is that responses involving the component parts of composites in which the parts are aligned into a face-like configuration are slower and less accurate than responses to the same parts in a misaligned (not face-like) format. This is often taken as evidence that seeing a whole face in the aligned condition interferes with perceiving its separate parts, but it remains unclear to what extent the composite face effect also reflects contributions from other potential sources of interference. We present a new variant of the paradigm involving composites created from top and bottom parts of familiar faces drawn from orthogonal social categories of gender and occupation. This allows us to examine the contributions of differences in relatively visual properties (gender) or relatively semantic properties (occupation) to composite interference and to measure whether variation in a task-irrelevant category (e.g., differences in gender across the parts of the composite when the task is to categorize the occupation of one of the parts) will influence the size of the composite effect. Our findings show that the composite face effect can be modulated by task-irrelevant social categories and that this interference is primarily visual in nature because the influence of face gender is more direct and more consistent than the influence of occupation

    Ground state of the random-bond spin-1 Heisenberg chain

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    Stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo is used to study the ground state of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain with bond disorder. Typical spin- and string-correlations functions behave in accordance with real-space renormalization group predictions for the random-singlet phase. The average string-correlation function decays algebraically with an exponent of -0.378(6), in very good agreement with the prediction of (35)/20.382-(3-\sqrt{5})/2\simeq -0.382, while the average spin-correlation function is found to decay with an exponent of about -1, quite different from the expected value of -2. By implementing the concept of directed loops for the spin-1 chain we show that autocorrelation times can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude.Comment: 9 pages, 10 figure

    Asymmetric interference between sex and emotion in face perception

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    Previous research with speeded-response interference tasks modeled on the Garner paradigm has demonstrated that task-irrelevant variations in either emotional expression or facial speech do not interfere with identity judgments, but irrelevant variations in identity do interfere with expression and facial speech judgments. Sex, like identity, is a relatively invariant aspect of faces. Drawing on a recent model of face processing according to which invariant and changeable aspects of faces are represented in separate neurological systems, we predicted asymmetric interference between sex and emotion classification. The results of Experiment 1, in which the Garner paradigm was employed, confirmed this prediction: Emotion classifications were influenced by the sex of the faces, but sex classifications remained relatively unaffected by facial expression. A second experiment, in which the difficulty of the tasks was equated, corroborated these findings, indicating that differences in processing speed cannot account for the asymmetric relationship between facial emotion and sex processing. A third experiment revealed the same pattern of asymmetric interference through the use of a variant of the Simon paradigm. To the extent that Garner interference and Simon interference indicate interactions at perceptual and response-selection stages of processing, respectively, a challenge for face processing models is to show how the same asymmetric pattern of interference could occur at these different stages. The implications of these findings for the functional independence of the different components of face processing are discussed

    Strong contribution to octet baryon mass splittings

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    We calculate the mdmum_d-m_u contribution to the mass splittings in baryonic isospin multiplets using SU(3) chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD. Fitting isospin-averaged perturbation theory functions to PACS-CS and QCDSF-UKQCD Collaboration lattice simulations of octet baryon masses, and using the physical light quark mass ratio mu/mdm_u/m_d as input, allows MnMpM_n-M_p, MΣMΣ+M_{\Sigma^-}-M_{\Sigma^+} and MΞMΞ0M_{\Xi^-}-M_{\Xi^0} to be evaluated from the full SU(3) theory. The resulting values for each mass splitting are consistent with the experimental values after allowing for electromagnetic corrections. In the case of the nucleon, we find MnMp=2.9±0.4MeVM_n-M_p= 2.9 \pm 0.4 \textrm{MeV}, with the dominant uncertainty arising from the error in mu/mdm_u/m_d

    Microwave pulse compression using a helically corrugated waveguide

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    There has been a drive in recent years to produce ultrahigh power short microwave pulses for a range of applications. These high-power pulses can be produced by microwave pulse compression. Sweep-frequency based microwave pulse compression using smooth bore hollow waveguides is one technique of passive pulse compression, however, at very high powers, this method has some limitation due to its operation close to cutoff. A special helical corrugation of a circular waveguide ensures an eigenwave with strongly frequency dependent group velocity far from cutoff, which makes the helically corrugated waveguide attractive for use as a passive pulse compressor for very high-power amplifiers and oscillators. The results of proof-of-principle experiments and calculations of the wave dispersion using a particle in cell particle-in-cell (PIC) code are presented. In the experiments, a 70-ns 1-kW pulse from a conventional traveling-wave tube (TWT) was compressed in a 2-m-long helical waveguide. The compressed pulse had a peak power of 10.9 kW and duration of 3 ns. In order to find the optimum pulse compression ratio, the waveguide's dispersion characteristics must be well known. The dispersion of the helix was calculated using the PIC code Magic and verified using an experimental technique. Future work detailing plans to produce short ultrahigh power gigawatt (GW) pulses will be discussed

    Convergence of chiral effective field theory

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    We formulate the expansion for the mass of the nucleon as a function of pion mass within chiral perturbation theory using a number of different ultra-violet regularisation schemes; including dimensional regularisation and various finite-ranged regulators. Leading and next-to-leading order non-analytic contributions are included through the standard one-loop Feynman graphs. In addition to the physical nucleon mass, the expansion is constrained by recent, extremely accurate, lattice QCD data obtained with two flavors of dynamical quarks. The extent to which different regulators can describe the chiral expansion is examined, while varying the range of quark mass over which the expansions are matched. Renormalised chiral expansion parameters are recovered from each regularisation prescription and compared. We find that the finite-range regulators produce consistent, model-independent results over a wide range of quark mass sufficient to solve the chiral extrapolation problem in lattice QCD.Comment: 13 pages, 13 figures; To appear in Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics; presented at Erice School on Quarks in Hadrons and Nuclei, September 200
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