34 research outputs found

    Factors that influence community-based tourism (CBT) in developing and developed countries

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    Many community-based tourism (CBT) initiatives around the world have failed to deliver expected benefits because of unfavorable conditions involving a variety of entwined social, cultural, economic, and political factors. Because of different economic, legislative, and political conditions, factors that facilitate and inhibit CBT are believed to be different in developing and developed nations. A directed content analysis of CBT case studies in 48 developing countries and 37 developed countries show that some of these differences vary in being advantageous or disadvantageous for either developing or developed nations. Furthermore, many case studies do not address factors and themes essential for tourism development because of the lack of a clear CBT framework guiding their research and a lack of integration of external conditions in the analysis. In general, collective land and tourism initiative ownership can provide certain advantages to communities in developing countries when it gives them control over land, tourism and natural resources, independence in decision-making, participative management and wider distribution of benefits

    Why community-based tourism and rural tourism in developing and developed nations are treated differently? A review

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    Rural community tourism initiatives in developed nations share most positive and negative characteristics with community-based tourism (CBT) initiatives in developing nations. They also share many barriers and conditions for tourism development. What makes them different is the context in which they operate. This paper identifies the main conditions that explain these differences through a review of findings from 103 location-specific case studies and other available literature that provides empirical evidence. The paper also explores the usage of the concepts of CBT and rural tourism. The findings are discussed under seven categories: Definitions, socioeconomic and cultural factors, policy and governance, land ownership, community cohesiveness, assimilation of external stakeholders, and type of visitors. It is argued that it is the developing-/developed-nation context, and not objectively established criteria, which largely dictates authors’ narratives with corresponding takes on tourism development and subsequent recommendations. The paper engages in a discussion about case-study research, its weaknesses and tendencies, providing some recommendations on how to increase the contribution of case studies to knowledge, and calls for more research on externally assisted non-Indigenous communitytourism initiatives in developed nations

    The Effects of Gymnema sylvestre in High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders

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    This study used an integrated approach to investigate the effects of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract as a functional dietary supplement with a high-fat diet. This approach examined insulin resistance, the dysfunction of adipose tissue, and liver steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for the acute and chronic study, in addition to GS in different doses (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Their body composition changes, serum lipid and glucose parameters, adipose and liver tissue histology, and gene expression were measured. It was found that GS significantly suppressed the increase of body weight, serum levels of lipid, insulin and leptin, and adipose tissue, and liver inflammation. GS also demonstrated hypoglycemic effects due to the amylase inhibition activity. Our results support the existence of a relationship between the HFD induced insulin resistance, adipose dysfunction and liver steatosis. In conclusion, GS works as a functional dietary supplement with preventative effects against metabolic disorder.

    Comparing Motivation-Based and Motivation-Attitude-Based Segmentation of Tourists Visiting Sensitive Destinations

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    This study aims to compare motivation-based and motivation-attitude-based segmentation of tourist markets, by identifying the heterogeneity of both solutions. A k-means cluster analysis was conducted to segment markets, using the data collected from 722 respondents, via an onsite survey of visitors to the Kuang Si Waterfall and Konglor Cave in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Subsequently, socio-demographic and trip-related characteristics among the segments were compared using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Both motivation-based and motivation-attitude-based segmentation each generated four distinctive segments. Although both solutions are viable for segmentation, the latter was found to be more useful in separating segments than the former, as its segments were significantly more distinguishable from each other in terms of socio-demographic and trip-related characteristics. This result contributes to the body of research on the comparison of market segmentation techniques, which is a rarely investigated topic

    Why Is Inter-Korean Forestry Cooperation Hard to Accomplish?

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    Deforestation is a severe environmental problem in North Korea. Beginning in 2001, the government implemented ten-year reforestation projects with few positive outcomes. Inter-Korean forestry cooperation began in 1999. Local governments and NGOs were the main implementers of cooperative projects from South Korea. The two Koreas had also been seeking financial and technical support from international organizations. This study examines the cooperative networks between government agencies, NGOs, and international organizations and financing possibilities to identify the reasons why so little has been accomplished. It also provides a meaningful contribution to the understanding of comparative relationships among the stakeholders and practical recommendations to improve the effectiveness of cooperative forestry programs in North Korea

    Factors Affecting Residents’ Support for Protected Area Designation

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    This study examined the formation of residents’ behavioral intentions to support the expansion of protected areas (PAs). A structural equation model combining the theory of planned behavior and an expectancy disconfirmation model were employed to test seven hypotheses on the influence of expectations, performance, satisfaction, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on behavioral intention to support PA designation. The findings indicate that although the expectations of PA performance did not significantly influence the satisfaction from PAs, the perceived performance after the designation significantly contributed to building satisfaction, which in turn had a significant role in explaining attitudes. Furthermore, positive and significant associations of subjective norms and behavioral control with behavioral intention to support additional designation were identified. These results provide indications for PA managers and environmental agencies regarding aspects to consider when engaging in planning with local communities and appropriate ways to respond to their concerns

    Efficient Fe3O4 nanoparticle catalysts for depolymerization of polyethylene terephthalate

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    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can be recovered as high-purity bis(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate) (BHET) monomer by glycolysis in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, Fe3O4 NPs of various shapes, sizes, and surface areas were synthesized using different colloidal synthesis methods, and the conversion of PET glycolysis and BHET yield were compared. Spinel ferrite NPs, including Fe3O4, were synthesized using the coprecipitation (CP), thermal decomposition (TD), and the hydrothermal (H) methods. Among the NP catalysts, Fe3O4-CP exhibited the best glycolysis performance with a PET conversion of similar to 100% and BHET yield of 93.5% at 195 degrees C for 2 h owing to its high surface area (146.6 m(2) g(-1)). The larger the surface area and the better the dispersion, the higher the glycolysis activity. The glycolysis performance of the mixed spinel ferrite NPs was similar to that of the Fe3O4 NPs, indicating that replacing Fe2+ in the Fe3O4 NPs with other transition metals, M2+, did not significantly change the glycolysis performance. BHET monomers produced from commercial waste PET bottles in large quantities contained trace amounts of metal contaminants, because PET production uses various metal-based additives and catalysts. Amberlite IRC-120, a cation-exchange resin, effectively removed metal impurities from BHET. This study provides an effective strategy for producing recycled PET (r-PET) by waste PET glycolysis

    Sociopsychological Aspects of Butterfly Souvenir Purchasing Behavior at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park in Indonesia

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    Utilizing butterflies in souvenirs escalates their exploitation, which occurs even with protected species. Visitors affect both tourism sustainability and butterfly populations. Thus, parks must establish visitor management practices to secure tourism, including butterfly-trading activities to provide social and economic benefits, while still maintaining butterfly populations and environmental sustainability. This research examined the relationships between visitors’ motivations, environmental attitudes (deontological status, legal compliance, and political activism), and preference regarding butterfly souvenirs. Data were collected using an on-site survey of 455 respondents at Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park in Indonesia and analyzed using factor analysis, correlation, and logistic regression. Results showed that visitors’ motivations were divided into four categories: challenge and freedom, nature appreciation, social relationships, and escape from routine. Visitors showed high deontological status, legal compliance, and political activist attitudes, valued the attributes of butterfly souvenirs highly, and strongly preferred souvenirs with authenticity value. Significant correlations existed among motivation, attitude, and preference for butterfly souvenir attributes. Logistic regression results revealed that with more frequent visits, better souvenir quality, and higher education levels, the possibility of visitors purchasing butterfly souvenirs increased. Prior knowledge regarding regulations prohibiting protected butterfly trading diminished this possibility. This study further discusses how visitors’ sociopsychological information can be used to minimize negative impacts caused by overtourism

    Comparing Motivation-Based and Motivation-Attitude-Based Segmentation of Tourists Visiting Sensitive Destinations

    No full text
    This study aims to compare motivation-based and motivation-attitude-based segmentation of tourist markets, by identifying the heterogeneity of both solutions. A k-means cluster analysis was conducted to segment markets, using the data collected from 722 respondents, via an onsite survey of visitors to the Kuang Si Waterfall and Konglor Cave in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Subsequently, socio-demographic and trip-related characteristics among the segments were compared using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Both motivation-based and motivation-attitude-based segmentation each generated four distinctive segments. Although both solutions are viable for segmentation, the latter was found to be more useful in separating segments than the former, as its segments were significantly more distinguishable from each other in terms of socio-demographic and trip-related characteristics. This result contributes to the body of research on the comparison of market segmentation techniques, which is a rarely investigated topic

    Towards a strategic approaches in alternative tests for pesticide safety

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    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory animals is inevitable in scientific evaluation and alternative approaches have limitations in the whole coverage, continuous effort is necessary to minimize animal use and to develop reliable alternative tests for pesticide evaluation. This review discusses alternative approaches for pesticide toxicity tests and hazard evaluation that have been used in peer-reviewed reports and could be applied in future studies based on the critical animal research principles of reduction, replacement, and refinement
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