174 research outputs found

    The correlations between fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum glucose, and glycated hemoglobin A1c in the total sample (n = 3547).

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    A. The correlation between fasting plasma glucose and fasting serum glucose. B. The correlation between fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin. C. The correlation between fasting serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin.</p

    The receiver operating characteristics curve for diagnosing diabetes using hemoglobin A1c ‚Č•6.5% compared with FPG >7.0 mmol/L among people without previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 3122).

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    The optimal cut-off value of hemoglobin A1c was ‚Č•6.5% for diagnosing diabetes, with a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 93.7%. The area under the curve was 0.952 (95% confidence interval: 0.917 to 0.986).</p

    Massive components in renewable hydrothermal liquid trigger ultra-high differentially expressed genes and diverse pathways for pathogen control

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    Hydrothermal liquefaction aqueous phase (HTL-AP) greatly hindered the sustainable development of HTL technology due to its high output and diverse compound distribution. Herein, the antimicrobial behavior, application scenario and acton mechanism of HTL-AP were clarified since an emerging pathogen reduction approach by HTL-AP attracts increasing attention. We studied the molecular cognition and underlying mechanism for phytopathogen control provoked by HTL-AP via multiscale analysis including mycelial morphology, intracellular metabolites and transcriptome. HTL-AP in a very low concentration (only 1.5%) completely inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) and showed promising potential for seed-borne fungi control. Biochemical analysis revealed that the morphology was significantly changed, the contents of four intracellular compounds were all largely disordered, and activities of six enzymes simultaneously decreased in mycelium after uptake of HTL-AP. Further, the transcriptome analysis revealed the disturbance of the gene expression of B. cinerea in response to HTL-AP stress. Ultra-high differentially expressed genes were enriched, which was significantly distinguished from the reported fungicide agent. HTL-AP mainly acted on metabolic processes of B. cinerea while disruption of genetic information processes and cellular processes were also performed. All four main antimicrobial modes were observed in HTL-AP action, and multiple action pathways of HTL-AP exhibited a synergistic interaction in growth inhibition. The multiscale analysis in this study refreshed the knowledge and cognition of HTL-AP functioned for pathogen control, which was speculated due to the multiple active compounds. HTL-AP showed a high potential for seed-borne fungi control, contributing to the novel renewable and suatainable fungicide agent development and new antimicroial target discovery

    Accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior patterns, brain structure, and cognitive function in dementia-free older adults : a population-based study

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    Background: Sedentary behavior is associated with cognitive impairment, but the neuropathological mechanisms underlying their associations are poorly understood. Objective: To investigate the associations of accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior patterns with brain structure and cognition, and further to explore the potential mechanisms. Methods: This community-based study included 2,019 older adults (age‚Č•60 years, 59% women) without dementia derived from participants in the baseline examination of MIND-China (2018-2020). We assessed sedentary parameters using an accelerometer and cognitive function using a neuropsychological test battery. Structural brain markers were assessed on the structural brain MRI scans in a subsample (n = 1,009). Data were analyzed using the general linear, isotemporal substitution, and mediation models. Results: In the total sample (n = 2,019), adjusting for multiple covariates and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity, longer mean sedentary bout duration was linearly related with lower z-scores of global cognition, verbal fluency, and memory (ptrend &lt; 0.05), whereas greater total sedentary time was linearly associated with lower z-scores of global cognition, verbal fluency, and memory only among individuals with long sedentary time (&gt;10 h/day) (ptrend &lt; 0.05); Breaking up sedentary time with same amount of light-intensity physical activity was significantly associated with higher verbal fluency and memory z-scores (p &lt; 0.05). In the MRI subsample (n = 1,009), separately entering structural brain MRI markers into the mediation models substantially attenuated the associations of mean sedentary bout duration with global cognition, verbal fluency, and memory z-scores. Conclusion: Prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time is associated with poor global cognition, memory, and verbal fluency among rural older adults, and structural brain markers could partially mediate the association

    Associations of adverse childhood experiences with common psychiatric disorder in later life: results from the China mental health survey

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    Abstract Background Associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and common psychiatric disorders among older Chinese individuals have not been well reported. The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence of ACEs and the associations of ACEs with common psychiatric disorders among older adults in China. Methods The study used data from the China Mental Health Survey (CMHS), a nationally representative epidemiological survey, which used computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI), logistic regression models were used to examine community-based adult psychiatric disorders and associated risk factors. Finally, 2,317 individuals aged 60 years or over were included in the CMHS. The national prevalence of ACEs in older adults were estimated and logistic regression were used to analyse the association between ACEs and past-year psychiatric disorders. Results Prevalence of ACEs among older adults in China was 18.1%. The three most common types of ACEs were neglect (11.6%), domestic violence (9.2%), and parental loss (9.1%). This study proved the association between ACEs and common past-year psychiatric disorders in older adults. ACEs increased the risk of past-year psychiatric disorders in older adults. After adjustment for age, sex, marital status, employment status, education, rural or urban residence, region, and physical diseases, the association between ACEs and past-year psychiatric disorders were still significant. Conclusions ACEs are linked to an increased risk for past-year psychiatric disorders in older adults. ACEs may have long-term effects on older adults’ mental well-being. Preventing ACEs may help reduce possible adverse health outcomes in later life

    Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for OFDM-Based ISAC Signaling

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    Integrated Sensing and Communications (ISAC) has garnered significant attention as a promising technology for the upcoming sixth-generation wireless communication systems (6G). In pursuit of this goal, a common strategy is that a unified waveform, such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), should serve dual-functional roles by enabling simultaneous sensing and communications (S&C) operations. However, the sensing performance of an OFDM communication signal is substantially affected by the randomness of the data symbols mapped from bit streams. Therefore, achieving a balance between preserving communication capability (i.e., the randomness) while improving sensing performance remains a challenging task. To cope with this issue, in this paper we analyze the ambiguity function of the OFDM communication signal modulated by random data. Subsequently, a probabilistic constellation shaping (PCS) method is proposed to devise the probability distributions of constellation points, which is able to strike a scalable S&C tradeoff of the random transmitted signal. Finally, the superiority of the proposed PCS method over conventional uniformly distributed constellations is validated through numerical simulations

    Brainformers: Trading Simplicity for Efficiency

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    Transformers are central to recent successes in natural language processing and computer vision. Transformers have a mostly uniform backbone where layers alternate between feed-forward and self-attention in order to build a deep network. Here we investigate this design choice and find that more complex blocks that have different permutations of layer primitives can be more efficient. Using this insight, we develop a complex block, named Brainformer, that consists of a diverse sets of layers such as sparsely gated feed-forward layers, dense feed-forward layers, attention layers, and various forms of layer normalization and activation functions. Brainformer consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art dense and sparse Transformers, in terms of both quality and efficiency. A Brainformer model with 8 billion activated parameters per token demonstrates 2x faster training convergence and 5x faster step time compared to its GLaM counterpart. In downstream task evaluation, Brainformer also demonstrates a 3% higher SuperGLUE score with fine-tuning compared to GLaM with a similar number of activated parameters. Finally, Brainformer largely outperforms a Primer dense model derived with NAS with similar computation per token on fewshot evaluations
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