681 research outputs found

    Mean-reverting behavior of consumption-income ratio in OECD countries: evidence from SURADF panel unit root tests

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    This paper examines the existence of the mean-reverting behavior of the consumption-income ratio from a panel of 24 OECD countries through the application of the series-specific SURADF panel unit root test. The results show that the consumption-income ratios in 22 OECD countries exhibit mean-reverting behavior. Furthermore, the half-life of the consumption-income ratio for these 22 OECD countries is between 0.28 to 3.48 years. This implies that policy shocks in industrialized economies are not likely to have permanent effects on the consumption-income ratio.Mean reversion; Consumption-income ratio; SURADF; Half-life

    The Charisma of Online Group-Buying: The Moderating Role of Social Motivation

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    Group buying can spread worldwide because the growth of the online shopping market has been considerable. In addition to deal popularity and discount rate, social motivation was included in this study. If a consumer cannot achieve an economic exchange benefit, a social exchange benefit might provide another function for the group member to stay in the community. This study adopted convenience sampling and an online questionnaire to conduct a survey. Among 240 questionnaires collected, 204 were valid. According to ANOVA analysis, the results demonstrated that social motivation has a positive influence on the relationship between the discount of a product and customers 'purchasing intention but not on the relationship between the popularity of a product and customers' purchasing intention. Therefore, we concluded that strengthening social networking can have a positive effect on customers' purchasing intention and thus encouraging the development of group purchasing retailers and related industries

    Copper Metal for Semiconductor Interconnects

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    Resistance-capacitance (RC) delay produced by the interconnects limits the speed of the integrated circuits from 0.25 mm technology node. Copper (Cu) had been used to replace aluminum (Al) as an interconnecting conductor in order to reduce the resistance. In this chapter, the deposition method of Cu films and the interconnect fabrication with Cu metallization are introduced. The resulting integration and reliability challenges are addressed as well

    Repeated Small Perturbation Approach Reveals Transcriptomic Steady States

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    The study of biological systems dynamics requires elucidation of the transitions of steady states. A “small perturbation” approach can provide important information on the “steady state” of a biological system. In our experiments, small perturbations were generated by applying a series of repeating small doses of ultraviolet radiation to a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. The biological response was assessed by monitoring the gene expression profiles using cDNA microarrays. Repeated small doses (10 J/m2) of ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure modulated the expression profiles of two groups of genes in opposite directions. The genes that were up-regulated have functions mainly associated with anti-proliferation/anti-mitogenesis/apoptosis, and the genes that were down-regulated were mainly related to proliferation/mitogenesis/anti-apoptosis. For both groups of genes, repetition of the small doses of UVB caused an immediate response followed by relaxation between successive small perturbations. This cyclic pattern was suppressed when large doses (233 or 582.5 J/m2) of UVB were applied. Our method and results contribute to a foundation for computational systems biology, which implicitly uses the concept of steady state

    A lack of association between genetic polymorphisms in beta-defensins and susceptibility of psoriasis in Taiwanese: A case–control study

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    AbstractBackgroundGenetic predisposition of the inflammatory-host response may affect the development of psoriasis. Previous studies have shown that copy number variations (CNVs) of β-defensin genes (DEFB) are associated with the susceptibility of psoriasis in Caucasian populations.ObjectivesThis study aimed to assess the role of the CNVs of the DEFB4 gene and functional variants in the DEFB1 gene in Taiwanese patients with psoriasis.MethodsIn total, 196 patients with psoriasis and 196 control individuals were analyzed for the presence of the DEFB4 CNVs using the paralogue ratio test, and also for the DEFB1 polymorphisms rs11362, rs1800972, and rs1799946, using a polymerase chain reaction.ResultsNone of the polymorphisms were found to be associated with psoriasis. The distribution of DEFB4 genomic CNVs did not significantly differ between the control group and psoriasis group. The frequencies of patients who carried a greater than the median (≥ 5) number of copies did not significantly differ in patients with psoriasis and controls. The multivariate analysis similarly revealed that the DEFB4 CNVs were not associated with psoriasis (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval = 0.89–1.19, p = 0.720). No significant difference was detected in the genotype and allele distribution for any of the individual DEFB1 polymorphisms between the cases and the controls. Finally, the overall haplotype frequency profiles derived from the three polymorphisms did not significantly differ between the cases and the controls.ConclusionOur results do not suggest that these genetic variants of the β-defensin genes contribute to the genetic background of psoriasis in Taiwanese patients

    Reduced Risk of Dementia in Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using Chinese herbal medicine: A nested case-control study

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    Dementia is a prevalent condition in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. While Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is often employed as complementary therapy for glycemic control, its effect in controlling likelihood of dementia has not yet been fully elucidated. AIM To compare the risk of dementia between T2DM patients with and without CHM treatment. METHODS We undertook a nested case-control study and obtained data on patients 20-70 years of age who received medical care for T2DM between 2001 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research database in Taiwan. Cases, defined as those with dementia that occurred at least one year after the diagnosis of T2DM, were randomly matched to controls without dementia from the study cohort at a 1:1 ratio. We applied conditional logistic regression to explore the associations between CHM treatment and dementia. RESULTS A total of 11699 dementia cases were matched to 11699 non-dementia controls. We found that adding CHM to conventional care was related to a lower risk of dementia [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.51], and high-intensity CHM treatment was associated with an adjusted OR of 0.22. CONCLUSION This study shows that the cumulative CHM exposure was inversely associated with dementia risk in an exposureresponse manner, implying that CHM treatment may be embraced as a disease management approach for diabetic patients to prevent dementia