2 research outputs found

    Interaction between hydrodynamics and salt marsh dynamics: An example from Jiangsu coast

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    Salt marshes are distributed along more than 400 km of the Jiangsu coast in Eastern China, which are regarded as important habitats and serve as coastal protection as well. Previous research has proven that salt-marsh vegetation can reduce current velocity and dampen waves by its stems and leaves. Reversely, hydrodynamic forces also have a significant influence on the growth of salt-marsh vegetation. To study the interaction between hydrodynamics and salt-marsh development on the Jiangsu coast, a 2D schematized model has been built by using a new interactive structure between flow, wave and vegetation modules of the process-based model Delft3D. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the impact of vegetation on waves and currents is quantified. In the vegetation growth module, the development of salt marshes is influenced by inundation time and shear stress from hydrodynamic simulations. The feedback loop is completed by hydrodynamic modules receiving the newly updated data of salt-marsh field from the vegetation growth module. The results show that wave height and current velocity are significantly influenced by vegetation. Reversely, the dynamics of marsh vegetation greatly rely on hydrodynamic conditions. Consequently, this interaction between hydrodynamics and salt marsh induces temporal variations of each other. In the model, the salt marsh is especially sensitive to the waves. Though wave height is relatively small on the Jiangsu coast, in terms of bed shear stress, waves may be of great importance to the development of salt marsh.WaterbouwkundeCivil Engineering and Geoscience

    First-principles study of the effect of functional groups on polyaniline backbone

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    We present a first-principles density functional theory study focused on how the chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline are adjusted by introducing suitable substituents on a polymer backbone. Analyses of the obtained energy barriers, reaction energies and minimum energy paths indicate that the chemical reactivity of the polyaniline derivatives is significantly enhanced by protonic acid doping of the substituted materials. Further study of the density of states at the Fermi level, band gap, HOMO and LUMO shows that both the unprotonated and protonated states of these polyanilines are altered to different degrees depending on the functional group. We also note that changes in both the chemical and electronic properties are very sensitive to the polarity and size of the functional group. It is worth noting that these changes do not substantially alter the inherent chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline. Our results demonstrate that introducing different functional groups on a polymer backbone is an effective approach to obtain tailored conductive polymers with desirable properties while retaining their intrinsic properties, such as conductivity.MicroelectronicsElectrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Scienc