256 research outputs found

    Treatment of combined anterolateral posterolateral rotary instability without PLC reconstruction

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    زمینه و هدف: درمان ناپایداری ترکیبی ‌چرخشی قدامی - ‌خارجی، خلفی - ‌خارجی زانو ‌معمــولاً بــا اصلاح راستای زانو (Alignment)، بازسازی کمپلکس‌خلفی - خارجی PLC (Posterolateral Complex) و بازسازی لیگامان‌ متقاطع قدامی Anterior Cruciate Ligament) ACL) صورت می‌گیرد. با توجه به سخت بودن این اعمال جراحی و نیاز به بیش از دو مرحله عمل و با توجه به اختلاف ‌نظر در مورد اهمیت کمپلکس خلفی خارجی (PLC) در زانوی والگوس، در این مطالعه نتایج درمان این نوع ناپایداری بدون بازسازی این کمپلکس و با اصلاح واروس و بازسازی ACL به تنهایی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. روش‌ بررسی: این مطالعه یک کارآزمایی بالینی است که بر روی 29 بیمار (29 زانو) با ناپایداری ترکیبی چرخشی قدامی‌ - خارجی، خلفی - ‌خارجی انجام گرفت و علایم ذهنی و عینی ناپایداری ثبت شد. آرتروسکوپی برای بیماران انجام شد و برای اصلاح واروس، استئوتومی والگوس صورت گرفت. سپس در مرحله دیگری بازسازی ACL انجام شد. علایم ناپایداری پس از متوسط 23 ماه پیگیری بررسی و با قبل از عمل مقایسه شد. برای آنالیز اطلاعات از آزمون‌های مجذور کا، آزمون دقیق فیشر و ویلکاسون استفاده شد و 05/0P< به عنوان معنی دار تلقی گردید. یافته ها: درد در بیش از نصف بیماران و قفل کردن زانو (Locking) در تمامی آنها برطرف شد (001/0

    Computational screening of known broad-spectrum antiviral small organic molecules for potential influenza HA stem inhibitors.

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    With the emergence of new influenza virus strains that are resistant to current inhibitors such as oseltamivir (anti-neuraminidase (NA)) and amantadine (anti-M2 proton channel), influenza A viruses continue to be a serious threat to the public health worldwide. With this in view, there is a persistent need for the development of broader and more effective vaccines and therapeutics. Identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that recognize relatively invariant structures ‎on influenza haemagglutinin (HA) stem has invigorated efforts to develop universal influenza vaccines. The current computational study is designed to identify potential flavonoid inhibitors that bind to the contact epitopes of HA stem that are targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb). In this study, we utilized the three-dimensional crystallographic structure of different HA subtypes (H1, H2, H5, H3, and H7) in complex with bNAb to screen for potential broadly reactive influenza inhibitors. We performed Quantitative Structure-Activity and Relationship (QSAR) for 100 natural compounds known for their antiviral activity and performed molecular docking using AutoDock 4.2 suite. Furthermore, we conducted virtual screening of 1413 bioassay hit compounds by using virtual lab bench CLC Drug Discovery. The results showed 18 lead flavonoids with strong binding abilities to bNAb epitopes of various HA subtypes. These 18 broadly reactive compounds exhibited significant interactions with an average of seven Hbonds, docking energy of -22.43 kcal·mol-1, and minimum interaction ‎ energy of -4.65 kcal·mol-1, with functional contact residues. Procyanidin depicted strong interactions with group 1 HAs, whereas both sorbitol and procyanidin exhibited significant interactions with group 2 HAs. Using in silico docking analysis, we identified 18 bioactive flavonoids with potential strong binding cababilities to influenza HA-stems of various subtypes, which are the target for bNAb. The virtual screened bioassay hit compounds depicted a high number of Hbonds but low interaction and docking values compared to antiviral flavonoids. Using structure-based design and nanotechnology-based approaches, identified molecules could be modified to generate next generation anti-influenza drugs

    Comparative Phylogenetic and Residue Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus E1 Protein from the Middle East and North Africa Region

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    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region with an estimate of over 15 million chronically infected patients. However, molecular characterization of circulating genotypes in the MENA region remains elusive. Here, we performed a comparative phylogenomic analysis of so-far available E1 gene sequences (937), originating from eight countries in the MENA region. All HCV E1 protein sequences present in NCBI from the MENA region were retrieved and cataloged per year and country of origin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a maximum diversity of genotypes and subtypes in South Arabia [G-1 (1a, 1b, 1g), G-2 (2a, 2c), G-3 (3a) and G-4 (4a, 4d, 4n, 4o, 4r, 4s)] followed by Egypt [G-1 (1b, 1g) and G-4 (4a, 4l, 4n, 4m, 4u)], Iran [G-1 (1b) and G-3 (3a) G-6 (6a)], Tunisia [G-1 (1b) and G-2 (2a, 2b, 2c)], Algeria [G-1 (1i), 4(4f), Pakistan [G-1 (1a), G-3(3a, 3b)], Afghanistan [G-1 (1a), GT-3 (3a)], and 5(5a), and Yemen [G-4 (4r)]. The calculated evolution rate of retrieved sequences was 1.601 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year and the mean nucleotide diversity rate was 0.2684 (P < 0.001). The ratio of synonymous to non-synonymous (mean dN/dS) substitutions was higher in genotypes 2 and 4 compared to the genotypes 1 and 3. A higher degree of nucleotide identity in E1 gene was found between subtypes 1a and 1b, between 2c and 2g, and between 4a, 4d, and 4o. Comparative residue analysis of E1 protein epitope sequences of previously reported H111, A4, and A6 monoclonal antibodies showed relatively poor and genotype-specific conservancy. Perhaps, none of the reported epitope sequences had immunogenicity score higher than 0.4 (A minimum threshold for vaccine sequence prediction). Furthermore, these epitope sequences were heavily glycosylated at amino acid 196, 209, and 234 sites in all GTs. In conclusion, a high genetic variability in E1 protein coupled with increased glycosylation may deduce heterogeneity and subsequent escape from vaccine-generated immune response, thereby ascertaining necessary interventions for disease management and control.The work was performed at BRC internal resource

    Characterization of an H3N2 triple reassortant influenza virus with a mutation at the receptor binding domain (D190A) that occurred upon virus transmission from turkeys to pigs

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    The hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza virus mediates essential viral functions including the binding to host receptor and virus entry. It also has the antigenic sites required for virus neutralization by host antibodies. Here, we characterized an H3N2 triple reassortant (TR) influenza virus (A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04) with a mutation at the receptor binding domain (Asp190Ala) that occurred upon virus transmission from turkeys to pigs in an experimental infection study. The mutant virus replicated less efficiently than the parental virus in human, pig and turkey primary tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells, with more than 3-log10 difference in virus titer at 72 hours post infection. In addition, the mutant virus demonstrated lower binding efficiency to plasma membrane preparations from all three cell types compared to the parental virus. Antisera raised against the parental virus reacted equally to both homologous and heterlogous viruses, however, antisera raised against the mutant virus showed 4-8 folds lower reactivity to the parental virus

    Assessment of Indoor Air Quality of Four Primary Health Care Centers in Qatar.

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    Airborne bacteria pose a potential risk to human health upon inhalation in the indoor environments of health care facilities. Airborne bacteria may originate from various sources, including patients, workers, and daily visitors. Hence, this study investigates the quantity, size, and identification of airborne bacteria indoors and outdoors of four Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC) in Doha, Qatar. Air samples were collected from the lobby, triage room, and outside environment of the centers, including, Qatar University (QU-HC), Al-Rayyan (AR-HC), Umm-Ghuwailina (UG-HC), and Old Airport (OA-HC) between August 2020 and March 2021, throughout both the hot and the cold seasons. Samples were collected using an Anderson six-stage cascade impactor. The mean of the total colony-forming units was calculated per cubic meter of air (CFU/m). QU-HC had the lowest mean of total bacterial count compared with other centers in the indoor and outdoor areas with 100.4 and 99.6 CFU/m, respectively. In contrast, AR-HC had the highest level, with 459 CFU/m indoors, while OA-HC recorded the highest bacterial concentration of the outdoor areas with a total mean 377 CFU/m. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing was performed for genera identification. , , , and were the four most frequently identified bacterial genera in this study. The abundance of airborne bacteria in the four health centers was higher in the cold season. About 46% of the total airborne bacterial count for three PHCC centers exceeded 300 CFU/m, making them uncompliant with the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendation for indoor settings. Consequently, an IAQ standards should be shaped to establish a baseline for measuring air pollution in Qatar. Additionally, it is crucial to understand seasonal fluctuations better so that hospitals can avoid rising and spreading infection peaks.This research was funded partially by Primary Health Care Corporation, grant number PHCC/RC/18/06/002

    A methodology of automatic class diagrams generation from source code using Model-Driven Architecture and Machine Learning to achieve Energy Efficiency

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    The automated generation of class diagrams is a crucial task in software engineering, facilitating the understanding, analysis, and documentation of complex software systems. Traditional manual approaches are time and energy consuming, error-prone, and lack consistency. To address these challenges, this research presents an automated proposed approach that utilizes Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), a machine learning algorithm, to generate class diagrams from source code within the context of Model Driven Architecture (MDA) and reverse engineering. A comprehensive case study is conducted to compare the results obtained from the automated approach with manually created class diagrams. The GNN model demonstrates high accuracy in capturing the system’s structure, associations, and relationships. Notably, the automated approach significantly reduces the time required for class diagram generation, leading to substantial time and energy savings. By advancing automated software documentation, this research contributes to more efficient software engineering practices. It promotes consistency, eliminates human errors, and enables software engineers to focus on higher-value tasks. Overall, the proposed approach showcases the potential of GNNs in automating class diagram generation and its practical benefits for software development and documentation

    Urine Tests for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases and Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens

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    The relation between disease and urine was recognized by physicians since the earliest civilization BC. Urine is considered an ideal diagnostic specimen for its noninvasive and easy method of collection. Urinalysis encompasses a wide range of tests, which includes a variety of chemical tests, urine microscopy, bacterial cultures, and molecular tests. Importantly, urine tests can diagnose patients with antibiotic-resistant urinary tract infections (UTI), directly from urine and/or bacterial culture. This chapter summarizes the most common urine tests in the infectious disease field, with a special focus on diagnosing UTI and characterizing their antibiotic resistant. In addition to describing the advantages and limitation of these tests, the chapter explores the promising emerging technologies and methods in this field. This chapter is beneficial for scientists and healthcare workers in the field

    Molecular epidemiology of Rotavirus in children with gastroenteritis in Qatar

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    Acute gastroenteritis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality of young children worldwide. The vast majority of diarrhea cases in developing and developed countries are attributable to the viruses and to a lesser extent to bacteria, fungi and toxins. Rotavirus (RV) is recognized as the most important etiological agent leading to acute gastroenteritis globally. In order to determine the burden and characteristics of RV infections in children in Qatar, profiling of circulating genotypes and their correlation with demographics and clinical manifestations were evaluated

    Impact of Physical Exercise on Gut Microbiome, Inflammation, and the Pathobiology of Metabolic Disorders.

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    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbors a complex and diverse microbial composition that outnumbers our own body cells and their gene contents. These microbes play a significant role in host metabolism and energy homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that the GIT microbiome significantly contributes to host health and that impairments in the microbiome may cause the development of metabolic diseases. The microbiome architecture is shaped by several genetic and environmental factors, including nutrition and physical activity. Physical exercise has preventive or therapeutic effects in respiratory, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and muscular diseases. Yet, we still have little information of the beneficial effects of physical exercise on GIT health and microbial composition. Furthermore, we are not aware whether exercise-derived benefits on microbiome diversity can beneficially influence other tissues and body organs. The aim of this article is to review the available literature on exercise-induced microbiome changes and to explain how these changes may induce inflammatory, immune, and oxidative responses that may contribute to the improvement of metabolic disorders. A systemic and comprehensive search of the relevant literature using MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases was conducted during fall 2018 and spring 2019. The search identified sixty-two research and review articles that discussed exercise-induced microbiome changes. The review of the relevant literature suggests that exercise-induced microbial changes affect the host's immune pathways and improve energy homeostasis. Microbes release certain neuroendocrine and immune-modulatory factors that may lower inflammatory and oxidative stress and relieve patients suffering from metabolic disorders. Exercise-induced changes in microbial diversity are able to improve tissue metabolism, cardiorespiratory fitness, and insulin resistance
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