1,611 research outputs found

    Ketamine cystitis: Its urological impact and management

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    AbstractKetamine, an n-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor complex antagonist, has been used as an anesthetic and/or analgesic. However, in the past decade, ketamine has been illegally available as a recreational drug in Asian countries and Taiwan. Due to the characteristic of being short-acting, youngsters widely assume that ketamine is not as harmful as other drugs, such as heroin. Consequently, many young patients used this drug for a longer duration before they presented with severe urinary frequency and urgency symptoms. Subsequently, other cases have been reported in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, and Europe. Ketamine abuse is increasing, with rates of 0.30% in 2006 to 0.40% in 2007 among those in the 16–59 year age group. In general, affected patients tend to be young with a peak age range of 16–35 years. The incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms in ketamine abuse patients is around 30%. The actual underlying pathomechanism of ketamine cystitis (KC) and associated pelvic pain remains unclear. It is speculated that chronic contact and stimulation to the bladder or ureteral mucosa due to metabolites of ketamine will result in submucosal edema, vascular ectasia, fibrosis, detrusor muscle inflammation, and fibrosis. Presentations of KC include remarkable dysuria, urinary frequency/urgency, urge incontinence, and bladder pain. Urine culture usually fails to yield any microbiology in KC with bladder pain alone. The majority of patients can enjoy clinical improvement after cessation of ketamine and urological treatment similar to interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). However, patients who are still abusing ketamine and/or who have a longer duration of ketamine abuse might suffer from severe bladder pain, which does not respond to empirical oral or intravesical treatments such as hyaluronic acid. Among these patients, most have a remarkably impaired quality of life and are at risk of developing upper urinary tract damage, including hydronephrosis and kidney injury. To reduce bladder pain, improve quality of life, and avoid further deterioration of renal function, surgical intervention might be indicated

    Ergonomic principles and techniques in facilitating advanced laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) urinary tract reconstruction with conventional laparoscopic instruments

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    Background/PurposeThe technical and ergonomic details of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) reconstruction have not been reported. In this study, we explored the feasibility and safety of performing advanced LESS upper urinary tract reconstruction with conventional laparoscopic instruments.MethodsBetween September 2010 and March 2011, we retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from five patients who underwent LESS urinary tract reconstruction. The LESS reconstruction included pyeloureterostomy (N = 1), dismembered pyeloplasty (N = 2), ureteroneocystostomy (N = 1), and ureteroplasty for bifid blind ending ureter (N = 1). The perioperative and postoperative parameters were collected for analysis. The ergonomic principles and techniques are detailed.ResultsAll reconstructive LESS procedures were completed successfully without open conversion or laparoscopic conversion. Ancillary ports or ancillary instruments were not applied in any of the patients. The mean patient age was 40.4 years. The mean operative time was 213 ± 69 minutes, the estimated blood loss ranged from minimal to 50 mL, and the mean hospital stay was 4.4 ± 4 days. No operation-related complication occurred.ConclusionBased on our ergonomic principles and suturing/knotting techniques, conventional laparoscopic instruments are feasible and safe for LESS urinary reconstructive procedures

    High Altitude Pulmonary Edema in a Patient with Previous Pneumonectomy

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    High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening illness that can occur in individuals ascending to altitudes exceeding 2400 m. The risk factors are rapid ascent, physical exertion and a previous history of HAPE. This work presents a case study of a 74-year-old man who underwent left side pneumonectomy 40 years ago and subsequently experienced several instances of HAPE. The well-known risk factors for HAPE were excluded in this patient. We suspect that the post-pneumonectomy condition may be a risk factor for HAPE based on this case. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(4):320-322

    Effect of Lower Extremity Bypass Surgery on Inflammatory Reaction and Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The abnormalities in nutrient metabolism and elevated inflammatory mediators resulting from DM lead to impairment of wound healing and vulnerability to infection and foot ulcers. Diabetic lower limb ischemia often leads to limb necrosis. Lower extremity bypass surgery (LEBS) is indicated to prevent limb loss in patients with critical leg ischemia. This study investigated the alteration of inflammatory and endothelium dysfunction markers before and after LEBS in DM patients. Twenty one type 2 DM patients with LEBS were included. Blood was drawn before and at 1 day and 7 days after surgery in the patients. Plasma soluble cellular adhesion molecule levels and blood leukocyte integrin expressions were measured. Also, plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide were analyzed to evaluate the vascular endothelial function. The results showed that there were no significant differences in plasma cellular adhesion molecules, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide levels, nor did any differences in leukocyte integrin expressions before and after the operation. These results suggest that the efficacy of LEBS on alleviating inflammatory reaction and improving endothelial function in DM patients was not obvious

    High-throughput avian molecular sexing by SYBR green-based real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Combination of <it>CHD </it>(chromo-helicase-DNA binding protein)-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with electrophoresis (PCR/electrophoresis) is the most common avian molecular sexing technique but it is lab-intensive and gel-required. Gender determination often fails when the difference in length between the PCR products of <it>CHD-Z </it>and <it>CHD-W </it>genes is too short to be resolved.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Here, we are the first to introduce a PCR-melting curve analysis (PCR/MCA) to identify the gender of birds by genomic DNA, which is gel-free, quick, and inexpensive. <it>Spilornis cheela hoya </it>(<it>S. c. hoya</it>) and <it>Pycnonotus sinensis </it>(<it>P. sinensis</it>) were used to illustrate this novel molecular sexing technique. The difference in the length of <it>CHD </it>genes in <it>S. c. hoya </it>and <it>P. sinensis </it>is 13-, and 52-bp, respectively. Using Griffiths' P2/P8 primers, molecular sexing failed both in PCR/electrophoresis of <it>S. c. hoya </it>and in PCR/MCA of <it>S. c. hoya </it>and <it>P. sinensis</it>. In contrast, we redesigned sex-specific primers to yield 185- and 112-bp PCR products for the <it>CHD-Z </it>and <it>CHD-W </it>genes of <it>S. c. hoya</it>, respectively, using PCR/MCA. Using this specific primer set, at least 13 samples of <it>S. c. hoya </it>were examined simultaneously and the Tm peaks of <it>CHD-Z </it>and <it>CHD-W </it>PCR products were distinguished.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>In this study, we introduced a high-throughput avian molecular sexing technique and successfully applied it to two species. This new method holds a great potential for use in high throughput sexing of other avian species, as well.</p

    Healthcare costs associated with progressive diabetic retinopathy among National Health Insurance enrollees in Taiwan, 2000-2004

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and one of the major causes of adult visual impairment in national surveys in Taiwan. This study aimed to identify the healthcare costs of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program on behalf of diabetic patients with stable or progressive retinopathy.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 4,988 medication-using diabetic retinopathy subjects ≥ 40 years of age under National Health Insurance Program coverage between 2000 and 2004. Study cohort subjects were recorded as having diabetic retinopathy according to ICD-9-CM codes. States of diabetic retinopathy were strategically divided into stable and progressive categories according to subjects' conditions at follow-up in 2004. Expenditures were calculated and compared for the years 2000 and 2004.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>During the 4-year follow-up (2000 through 2004), 4,116 subjects (82.5%) of 4,988 diabetic subjects were in the stable category, and 872 (17.5%) were in the progressive category. Average costs of those in the normal category increased by US 48fromUS48 from US 1921 in 2000 to US 1969in2004(p=0.594),whereascostsforthoseprogressingfromnormaltononproliferativediabeticretinopathy(NPDR)orproliferativediabeticretinopathy(PDR)increasedbyUS1969 in 2004 (p = 0.594), whereas costs for those progressing from normal to non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) increased by US 1760, from US 1566in2000toUS1566 in 2000 to US 3326 in 2004 (p < 0.001). The PDR category had the highest average costs at US 3632in2000.TheNPDRtoPDRcategoryexperiencedthegreatestincreaseincostsatUS3632 in 2000. The NPDR-to-PDR category experienced the greatest increase in costs at US 3482, from US 2723in2000toUS2723 in 2000 to US 6204 in 2004 (p = 0.042), and the greatest percentage of increase at 2.3% (2.2% when adjusted by comparing to normal category).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This large-scale longitudinal study provides evidence that increased healthcare costs are associated with progressive diabetic retinopathy among diabetic NHI enrollees in Taiwan.</p

    Molecular epidemiology and emergence of worldwide epidemic clones of Neisseria meningitidis in Taiwan

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    BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease is infrequently found in Taiwan, a country with 23 million people. Between 1996 and 2002, 17 to 81 clinical cases of the disease were reported annually. Reported cases dramatically increased in 2001–2002. Our record shows that only serogroup B and W135 meningococci have been isolated from patients with meningococcal disease until 2000. However, serogroup A, C and Y meningococci were detected for the first time in 2001 and continued to cause disease through 2002. Most of serogroup Y meningococcus infections localized in Central Taiwan in 2001, indicating that a small-scale outbreak of meningococcal disease had occurred. The occurrence of a meningococcal disease outbreak and the emergence of new meningococcal strains are of public health concern. METHODS: Neisseria meningitidis isolates from patients with meningococcal disease from 1996 to 2002 were collected and characterized by serogrouping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The genetic relatedness and clonal relationship between the isolates were analyzed by using the PFGE patterns and the allelic profiles of the sequence types (STs). RESULTS: Serogroups A, B, C, W135, Y, and non-serogroupable Neisseria meningitidis were, respectively, responsible for 2%, 50%, 2%, 35%, 9%, and 2% of 158 culture-confirmed cases of meningococcal disease in 1996–2002. Among 100 N. meningitidis isolates available for PFGE and MLST analyses, 51 different PFGE patterns and 30 STs were identified with discriminatory indices of 0.95 and 0.87, respectively. Of the 30 STs, 21 were newly identified and of which 19 were found in serogroup B isolates. A total of 40 PFGE patterns were identified in 52 serogroup B isolates with the patterns distributed over several distinct clusters. In contrast, the isolates within each of the serogroups A, C, W135, and Y shared high levels of PFGE pattern similarity. Analysis of the allelic profile of the 30 STs suggested the serogroup B isolates be assigned into 5 clonally related groups/ clonal complexes and 7 unique clones. The ST-41/44 complex/Lineage 3, and the ST-3439 and ST-3200 groups represented 79% of the serogroup B meningococci. In contrast, isolates within serogroups A, serogroup W135 (and C), and serogroup Y, respectively, simply belonged to ST-7, ST-11, and ST-23 clones. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that serogroup B isolates were derived from several distinct lineages, most of which could either be indigenous or were introduced into Taiwan a long time ago. The serogroup A, W135 (and C), and Y isolates, respectively, belonged to the ST-7, ST-11, and ST-23, and the represented clones that are currently the major circulating clones in the world and are introduced into Taiwan more recently. The emergence of serogroup A, C and Y strains contributed partly to the increase in cases of meningococcal disease in 2001–2002

    Retroperitoneoscopic laparo-endoscopic single-site radical nephrectomy (RLESS-RN): initial experience with a homemade port

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    We successfully performed 6 LESS radical nephrectomy via the retroperitoneal approach (RLESS) using the Alexis wound retractor as a single access with conventional laparoscopic instruments. The results demonstrated that our RLESS technique of radical nephrectomy is a safe and feasible procedure for management of localized renal cancer
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