603 research outputs found

    Basic thermodynamic and dynamic characteristics of the glass forming intermetallics

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    Recent studies on intermetallic glasses challenged the conventional cognition that the glass formability would be deteriorated by the presence of intermetallics. To reveal the vitrification mechanism of intermetallics, three binary metallic alloys with multiple intermetallics and wide glass forming region are focused. The thermodynamics and dynamics of the intermetallics are studied by combining experiments and simulations, revealing that the glass forming systems can be featured by low melting entropy, low diffusion coefficient, and low formation enthalpy. Close inspection emphasizes the critical influence of the melting entropy in glass formation of intermetallics, and intermetallics with low melting entropy are of enhanced glass formability. In addition, for the glass forming intermetallics, the melting entropy shows close connection to the dynamics such as diffusion coefficients or viscosity of the liquids at melting temperature, with which a basic reference to design metallic glasses is substantiated

    Data_Sheet_1_An empirical study on the development of metaphorical comprehension of Chinese children.pdf

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    Metaphor affects how people focus, remember, and process information and significantly influences children’s language development. The study explored metaphorical comprehension by Chinese children of different ages (5–8 years). We collected response times and accuracy rates when they processed metaphorical and literal sentences with the graded salience. Linear mixed-effects modeling showed that Chinese children’s metaphorical ability improved with age. Subsequent analysis found that the perception period of metaphorical knowledge was at age 5, the development stage of metaphorical knowledge was at age 6 and 7, and the rational decision period of metaphorical ability was at age 8. After 8-year-old, children can invoke the knowledge of the intention schema while activating the source domain, and this knowledge can be automatically and quickly mapped to the target domain. Meanwhile, language development and cognitive processing influenced the metaphorical comprehension of Chinese children, especially children of 8 years of age who had the highest correct rate and the shortest reaction time to process low-saliency metaphorical sentences, while 5-year-old children had the highest accuracy in high-saliency metaphorical sentence and 6-year-old children got the longest reaction time to process sentence in high-saliency metaphor. This study may provide evidence for improving and training metaphor comprehension in children with special needs such as those with an autism spectrum disorder.</p

    Observed contribution of Barents-Kara sea ice loss to warm Arctic-cold Eurasia anomalies by submonthly processes in winter

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    The warm Arctic-cold Eurasia (WACE) pattern of surface air temperature anomalies is a prominent feature of the Eurasian climate variations during boreal winter. The interannual WACE anomalies are accompanied by sea ice loss in the Barents-Kara (BK) seas, however, the causality between them remains controversial because of large internal atmospheric variability over subarctic Eurasia in winter. Here we disentangle the contribution of BK sea ice loss to the WACE anomalies based on a statistical decomposition approach. An anticyclonic circulation anomaly over subarctic Eurasia that forces the WACE anomalies is found to reach its peak 3 d prior to BK sea ice loss. After excluding this prior atmospheric forcing signature, the East Asian cooling matures about 15 d later as a result of the weakened moisture transport associated with the enhanced BK downstream ridge and East Asian trough due to BK sea ice loss. The results suggest that BK sea ice loss contributes ∼65% and ∼81% of the WACE-related East Asian cooling and Arctic warming at interannual timescale, respectively, whereas the WACE-related cooling over central Eurasia primarily results from internal atmospheric variability. Such submonthly lagged East Asia cooling caused by BK sea ice loss could be helpful in predicting winter extreme cold events over East Asia

    Catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals and fuels

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    In the search of alternative resources to make commodity chemicals and transportation fuels for a low carbon future, lignocellulosic biomass with over 180-billion-ton annual production rate has been identified as a promising feedstock. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art catalytic transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Following a brief introduction on the structure, major resources and pretreatment methods of lignocellulosic biomass, the catalytic conversion of three main components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, into various compounds are comprehensively discussed. Either in separate steps or in one-pot, cellulose and hemicellulose are hydrolyzed into sugars and upgraded into oxygen-containing chemicals such as 5-HMF, furfural, polyols, and organic acids, or even nitrogen-containing chemicals such as amino acids. On the other hand, lignin is first depolymerized into phenols, catechols, guaiacols, aldehydes and ketones, and then further transformed into hydrocarbon fuels, bioplastic precursors and bioactive compounds. The review then introduces the transformations of whole biomass via catalytic gasification, catalytic pyrolysis, as well as emerging strategies. Finally, opportunities, challenges and prospective of woody biomass valorization are highlighted

    Plasma-enabled catalytic steam reforming of toluene as a biomass tar surrogate: Understanding the synergistic effect of plasma catalysis

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    In this study, steam reforming of toluene was carried out in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor combined with Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalysts. The effect of reaction temperature, calcination temperature of catalysts, and relative permittivity of packing materials, on the reaction performance and synergistic effect of plasma catalysis was investigated. The results showed that toluene conversion decreased initially and then increased with increasing temperature, due to a decreasing average reduced electric field and increasing catalytic activity at higher temperatures. At 450 °C, the process achieved a high toluene conversion of 87.1%, a total gas yield of 72.6%, and an energy efficiency of 18.2 g/kWh, demonstrating the potential of this approach for sustainable hydrogen production. Catalysts prepared at lower calcination temperatures or with higher relative permittivity packing materials perform better, owing to the larger Ni surface area available for catalytic reactions and the higher surface discharge facilitating the occurrence of surface reactions. In addition, the synergistic capacity in terms of toluene conversion and gas production exhibited a positive relationship with the metal surface area of catalysts and the relative permittivity of packing materials, while the relationship between reaction temperature and toluene conversion was negative

    External validation record.

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    Cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hypoprothrombinaemia is associated with longer hospital stays and increased risk of death. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for predicting the occurrence of cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hypoprothrombinaemia in hospitalized adult patients. This retrospective cohort study involved hospitalized adult patients at Xi’an Central Hospital from January 2020 to December 2022 based on the Chinese pharmacovigilance system developed and established by the Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center in China. Independent predictors of cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hypoprothrombinaemia were obtained using multivariate logistic regression and were used to develop and establish the nomogram. According to the same standard, the clinical data of hospitalized patients using cefoperazone/sulbactam at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Medical University from January 1, 2023 to June 30, 2023 were collected as the external validation group. The 893 hospitalized patients included 95 who were diagnosed with cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hypoprothrombinaemia. Our study enrolled 610 patients: 427 in the training group and 183 in the internal validation group. The independent predictors of cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hypoprothrombinaemia were surgery (odds ratio [OR] = 5.279, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.597–10.729), baseline platelet count ≤50×109/L (OR = 2.492, 95% CI = 1.110–5.593), baseline hepatic dysfunction (OR = 12.362, 95% CI = 3.277–46.635), cumulative defined daily doses (OR = 1.162, 95% CI = 1.162–1.221) and nutritional risk (OR = 16.973, 95% CI = 7.339–39.254). The areas under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic for the training and internal validation groups were 0.909 (95% CI = 0.875–0.943) and 0.888 (95% CI = 0.832–0.944), respectively. The Hosmer-Lemeshow tests yielded p = 0.475 and p = 0.742 for the training and internal validation groups, respectively, confirming the goodness of fit of the nomogram model. In the external validation group (n = 221), the nomogram was equally robust in cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hypoprothrombinaemia (AUC = 0.837, 95%CI = 0.736–0.938). The nomogram model constructed in this study had good predictive performance and extrapolation, which can help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hypoprothrombinaemia early. This will be useful in preventing the occurrence of cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hypoprothrombinaemia and allowing timely intervention measures to be performed.</div

    sj-pdf-8-jcb-10.1177_0271678X231197173 - Supplemental material for Microglial histone deacetylase 2 is dispensable for functional and histological outcomes in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury

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    Supplemental material, sj-pdf-8-jcb-10.1177_0271678X231197173 for Microglial histone deacetylase 2 is dispensable for functional and histological outcomes in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury by Yue Zhang, Yongfang Zhao, Yana Wang, Jiaying Li, Yichen Huang, Fan Lyu, Yangfan Wang, Pengju Wei, Yiwen Yuan, Yi Fu and Yanqin Gao in Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism</p

    Severe Burn Injury Significantly Alters the Gene Expression and m6A Methylation Tagging of mRNAs and lncRNAs in Human Skin

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    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modulates RNA metabolism and functions in cell differentiation, tissue development, and immune response. After acute burns, skin wounds are highly susceptible to infection and poor healing. However, our understanding of the effect of burn injuries on m6A methylation and their potential mechanism is still limited. Human m6A-mRNA&lncRNA Epitranscriptomic microarray was used to obtain comprehensive mRNA and lncRNA transcriptome m6A profiling and gene expression patterns after burn injuries in human skin tissue. Bioinformatic and functional analyses were conducted to find molecular functions. Microarray profiling showed that 65 mRNAs and 39 lncRNAs were significantly hypermethylated; 5492 mRNAs and 754 lncRNAs were significantly hypomethylated. Notably, 3989 hypomethylated mRNAs were down-expressed and inhibited many wound healing biological processes and pathways including in the protein catabolic process and supramolecular fiber organization pathway; 39 hypermethylated mRNAs were up-expressed and influenced the cell surface receptor signaling pathway and inflammatory response. Moreover, we validated that m6A regulators (METTL14, METTL16, ALKBH5, FMR1, and HNRNPC) were significantly downregulated after burn injury which may be responsible for the alteration of m6A modification and gene expression. In summary, we found that homeostasis in the skin was disrupted and m6A modification may be a potential mechanism affecting trauma infection and wound healing

    Genome-wide association study on coordination and agility in 461 Chinese Han males

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    Purpose: There is growing evidence that genetic factors can influence human athletic performance. In many sports performances, excellent coordination and agility are the keys to mastery. However, few studies have been devoted to identifying genetic influences on athletic performance. Methods: We generated a derived measure of coordination and agility from the data of hexagonal jumps and T-runs and conducted genome-wide association and meta-analysis studies focused on coordination and agility. Results: The phenotypic correlation and genetic covariance analysis indicated that hexagonal jumps and T-runs were possibly influenced by the same set of genetic factors (R = 0.27, genetic covariance = 0.59). Meta-analysis identified rs117047321 genome-wide significant association (N = 143, P < 10E-5) with coordination and agility, and this association was replicated in the replication group (N = 318, P < 0.05). The CG genotype samples of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) required a longer average movement time than the CC genotype samples, and the CG genotype only exists in Asia, which may belong to the East Asia-specific variation. This SNP is located on MYO5B, which is highly expressed in tissues such as the brain, heart, and muscle, suggesting that this locus might be a genetic factor related to human energy metabolism. Conclusion: Our study indicated that genetic factors can affect the athletic performance of coordination and agility. These findings may provide valuable insights for using genetic factors to evaluate sports characteristics