56,047 research outputs found

    Addressing the stability issue of perovskite solar cells for commercial applications.

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    Abstract When translating photovoltaic technology from laboratory to commercial products, low cost, high power conversion efficiency, and high stability (long lifetime) are the three key metrics to consider in addition to other factors, such as low toxicity, low energy payback time, etc. As one of the most promising photovoltaic materials with high efficiency, today organic–inorganic metal halide perovskites draw tremendous attention from fundamental research, but their practical relevance still remains unclear owing to the notorious short device operation time. In this comment, we discuss the stability issue of perovskite photovoltaics and call for standardized protocols for device characterizations that could possibly match the silicon industrial standards

    Frequency separation variations of the solar low-degree p-modes

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    Variations of frequency separations of low-degree p-modes are studied over the solar activity cycle. The separations studied are obtained from the frequencies of low-degree p-modes of the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG). 10.7 cm radio flux is used as an index of solar activity. Small separations of the p-mode frequencies are considered to be mainly dependent on the conditions in stellar interiors. Thus they could be applied to diagnose the changes in the stellar interior. Our calculation results show that the magnitudes of variations of the mean large separations are less than 1 σ\sigma over the solar activity cycle. Small separations show different behaviors in the ascending and descending phases of activity. In the ascending phase, variations of the small separations are less than 1 σ\sigma. However, the small separations have systematic shifts during 2004 - 2007. The shifts are roughly 1 σ\sigma or more. The variations of the ratios of the small to large separations with time are similar to the changes of the small separations. The effects of the changes in the large separations on the ratios are negligible. The variations of the separations may be a consequence of the influence from the surface activity or systematic errors in measurements or some processes taking place in the solar interior.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in PAS

    Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation

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    In this work, we report a novel high capacity (number of degrees of freedom) open loop adaptive optics method, termed digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC), which provides a robust optoelectronic optical phase conjugation (OPC) solution. We showed that our prototype can phase conjugate light fields with ~3.9 x 10^(−3) degree accuracy over a range of ~3 degrees and can phase conjugate an input field through a relatively thick turbid medium (μ_sl ~13). Furthermore, we employed this system to show that the reversing of random scattering in turbid media by phase conjugation is surprisingly robust and accommodating of phase errors. An OPC wavefront with significant spatial phase errors (error uniformly distributed from – π/2 to π/2) can nevertheless allow OPC reconstruction through a scattering medium with ~40% of the efficiency achieved with phase error free OPC