4,116 research outputs found

    Synergistic Dominance Induced by Hip Extension Exercise Alters Biomechanics and Muscular Activity During Sprinting and Suggests a Potential Link to Hamstring Strain

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    Iguchi, J, Hojo, T, Fujisawa, Y, Kuzuhara, K, Yanase, K, Hirono, T, Koyama, Y, Tateuchi, H, and Ichihashi, N. Synergistic dominance induced by hip extension exercise alters biomechanics and muscular activity during sprinting and suggests a potential link to hamstring strain. J Strength Cond Res 37(9): 1770–1776, 2023--Hamstring strain is likely to occur during the late swing phase or the first half of the stance phase in sprinting. During the late swing phase, the hamstrings and gluteus maximus (Gmax) contract eccentrically to decelerate the lower limb. We hypothesized that, when the Gmax becomes dysfunctional because of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), the hamstring workload is increased (i.e., there is synergetic dominance), which could lead to an increased risk of strain. A total of healthy 15 male undergraduate or graduate students (age 23.1 ± 1.28 years) were recruited to perform exercises and maximal sprints. On day 1, before subjects performing DOMS-causing exercises, and on day 3, while subjects were experiencing DOMS in the Gmax, lower-limb biomechanical and muscle activity data were recorded using a motion analysis system and electromyography (EMG), respectively. Data were analyzed and compared between day 1 and day 3. Hip flexion angle on day 3 was significantly lower than that on day 1, but the opposite was true for the knee flexion angle (P < 0.05). Vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), and Gmax muscle activities on day 3 were significantly higher than those on day 1 (P < 0.05). Peak propulsive forces on day 3 were significantly higher than those on day 1 (P < 0.05). Kinematic changes such as decreased hip flexion angle and EMG changes such as increased BF EMG activity on day 3 to compensate for the loss of function of the Gmax may potentially increase the risk of hamstring strain

    Production of a selective antibacterial fatty acid against Staphylococcus aureus by Bifidobacterium strains

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    Aims: C16 monounsaturated fatty acid (C16:1) show antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen associated with various diseases such as atopic dermatitis and bacteremia, while the compound does not exhibit antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, an epidermal commensal that inhibits the growth of S. aureus. In this study, we aimed to find bifidobacterial strains with the ability to produce C16:1 and to find a practical manner to utilize C16:1-producing strains in industry.Methods: Various Bifidobacterium strains were screened for their content of C16:1. The chemical identity of C16:1 produced by a selected strain was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Medium components that affect the C16:1 content of the selected strain were investigated. Antibacterial activity against staphylococci was compared between the authentic C16:1 isomers and total fatty acids (TFA) extracted from the selected strain.Results: B. adolescentis 12451, B. adolescentis 12-111, B. boum JCM 1211, and Bifidobacterium sp. JCM 7042 showed high C16:1 content among the tested strains. TFA extracted from Bifidobacterium sp. JCM 7042 contained C16:1 at 2.3% as the fatty acid constituent (2.4 mg/L of broth). Through GC-MS and LC-MS analyses, the C16:1 synthesized by Bifidobacterium sp. JCM 7042 was identified as 7-cis-hexadecenoic acid (7-cis-C16:1). The authentic 7-cis-C16:1 showed strong and selective antibacterial activity against S. aureus, similar to 6-cis-C16:1, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of &lt; 10 µg/mL. Components that increase C16:1 productivity were not found in the MRS and TOS media; however, Tween 80 was shown to considerably reduce the C16:1 ratio in TFA. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus was observed when the TFA extracted from Bifidobacterium sp. JCM 7042 contained high level of 7-cis-C16:1 (6.1% in TFA) but not when it contained low level of 7-cis-C16:1 (0.1% in TFA).Conclusion: The fatty acid, 7-cis-C16:1, which can selectively inhibit the S. aureus growth, is accumulated in TFA of several bifidobacteria. The TFA extracted from cultured cells of Bifidobacterium sp. JCM 7042 demonstrated antibacterial activity. From a practical viewpoint, our findings are important for developing an efficient method to produce novel skin care cosmetics, functional dairy foods, and other commodities

    P2Y2 receptor mediates dying cell removal via inflammatory activated microglia

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    Microglial removal of dying cells plays a beneficial role in maintaining homeostasis in the CNS, whereas under some pathological conditions, inflammatory microglia can cause excessive clearance, leading to neuronal death. However, the mechanisms underlying dying cell removal by inflammatory microglia remain poorly understood. In this study, we performed live imaging to examine the purinergic regulation of dying cell removal by inflammatory activated microglia. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induces rapid death of primary rat microglia, and the surviving microglia actively remove dying cells. The nonselective P2 receptor antagonist, suramin, inhibited dying cell removal to the same degree as that of the selective P2Y2 antagonist, AR-C118925. This inhibition was more potent in LPS-stimulated microglia than in non-stimulated ones. LPS stimulation elicited distribution of the P2Y2 receptor on the leading edge of the plasma membrane and then induced drastic upregulation of P2Y2 receptor mRNA expression in microglia. LPS stimulation caused upregulation of the dying cell-sensing inflammatory Axl phagocytic receptor, which was suppressed by blocking the P2Y2 receptor and its downstream signaling effector, proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2). Together, these results indicate that inflammatory stimuli may activate the P2Y2 receptor, thereby mediating dying cell removal, at least partially, through upregulating phagocytic Axl in microglia

    Deep RL with Hierarchical Action Exploration for Dialogue Generation

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    Traditionally, approximate dynamic programming is employed in dialogue generation with greedy policy improvement through action sampling, as the natural language action space is vast. However, this practice is inefficient for reinforcement learning (RL) due to the sparsity of eligible responses with high action values, which leads to weak improvement sustained by random sampling. This paper presents theoretical analysis and experiments that reveal the performance of the dialogue policy is positively correlated with the sampling size. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a novel dual-granularity Q-function that explores the most promising response category to intervene in the sampling process. Our approach extracts actions based on a grained hierarchy, thereby achieving the optimum with fewer policy iterations. Additionally, we use offline RL and learn from multiple reward functions designed to capture emotional nuances in human interactions. Empirical studies demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms baselines across automatic metrics and human evaluations. Further testing reveals that our algorithm exhibits both explainability and controllability and generates responses with higher expected rewards

    Development of a Versatile Method to Construct Direct Electron Transfer-Type Enzyme Complexes Employing SpyCatcher/SpyTag System

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    The electrochemical enzyme sensors based on direct electron transfer (DET)-type oxidoreductase-based enzymes are ideal for continuous and in vivo monitoring. However, the number and types of DET-type oxidoreductases are limited. The aim of this research is the development of a versatile method to create a DET-type oxidoreductase complex based on the SpyCatcher/SpyTag technique by preparing SpyCatcher-fused heme c and SpyTag-fused non-DET-type oxidoreductases, and by the in vitro formation of DET-type oxidoreductase complexes. A heme c containing an electron transfer protein derived from Rhizobium radiobacter (CYTc) was selected to prepare SpyCatcher-fused heme c. Three non-DET-type oxidoreductases were selected as candidates for the SpyTag-fused enzyme: fungi-derived flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), an engineered FAD-dependent d-amino acid oxidase (DAAOx), and an engineered FMN-dependent l-lactate oxidase (LOx). CYTc-SpyCatcher (CYTc-SC) and SpyTag-Enzymes (ST-GDH, ST-DAAOx, ST-LOx) were prepared as soluble molecules while maintaining their redox properties and catalytic activities, respectively. CYTc-SC/ST-Enzyme complexes were formed by mixing CYTc-SpyCatcher and SpyTag-Enzymes, and the complexes retained their original enzymatic activity. Remarkably, the heme domain served as an electron acceptor from complexed enzymes by intramolecular electron transfer; consequently, all constructed CYTc-SC/ST-Enzyme complexes showed DET ability to the electrode, demonstrating the versatility of this method

    Moisture content estimation of green softwood logs of three species based on measurements of flexural vibration

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    Abstract The moisture contents of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), todomatsu (Abies sachalinensis) and hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) logs were estimated using a method of moisture content estimation proposed in our previous study. In the course of estimation, it was revealed that the regression line of the correlation between specific dynamic Young’s modulus (E/ρ) and tangent loss (tan δ) of green wood was different from that of moisture-conditioned wood and showed species dependency, both of which are not previously reported. Regression lines at the fiber saturation point (FSP) were constructed for each species by measuring E/ρ and tan δ from the flexural vibration of green small specimens and correcting the E/ρ values at their own moisture contents into E/ρ values at the FSP. The correlation of green wood in this study was different from that reported in previous studies of moisture-conditioned wood near the FSP. The correlations of sugi and hinoki were similar, whereas those of sugi and todomatsu were different despite no previous report of species dependency in air-dried wood. The moisture contents 86 logs (not those used to prepare small specimens) were estimated using regression lines of each species. The standard deviation of the difference between the estimated moisture content and the measured moisture content was 15.7%. A systematic error of 25.9% in moisture content was attributed to the different methods of specimen support used for small specimens and logs

    Revisiting Theoretical Analysis of Electric Dipole Moment of 129^{129}Xe

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    Linear response approach to the relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) theory has been extended to estimate contributions from the parity and time-reversal violating pseudoscalar-scalar (Ps-S) and scalar-pseudoscalar (S-Ps) electron-nucleus interactions along with electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electrons (ded_e) interacting with internal electric and magnetic fields. Random phase approximation (RPA) is also employed to produce results to compare with the earlier reported values and demonstrate importance of the non-RPA contributions arising through the RCC method. It shows that contributions from the S-Ps interactions and ded_e arising through the hyperfine-induced effects are very sensitive to the contributions from the high-lying virtual orbitals. Combining atomic results with the nuclear shell-model calculations, we impose constraints on the pion-nucleon coupling coefficients, and EDMs of proton and neutron. These results are further used to constrain EDMs and chromo-EDMs of up- and down-quarks by analyzing particle physics models.Comment: 15 pages including appendix, 8 tables and 1 figur

    Activation of neurons in the insular cortex and lateral hypothalamus during food anticipatory period caused by food restriction in mice

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    Abstract Mice fed a single meal daily at a fixed time display food anticipatory activity (FAA). It has been reported that the insular cortex (IC) plays an essential role in food anticipation, and lateral hypothalamus (LH) regulates the expression of FAA. However, how these areas contribute to FAA production is still unclear. Thus, we examined the temporal and spatial activation pattern of neurons in the IC and LH during the food anticipation period to determine their role in FAA establishment. We observed an increase of c-Fos-positive neurons in the IC and LH, including orexin neurons of male adult C57BL/6 mice. These neurons were gradually activated from the 1st day to 15th day of restricted feeding. The activation of these brain regions, however, peaked at a distinct point in the food restriction procedure. These results suggest that the IC and LH are differently involved in the neural network for FAA production

    Anomalous vortex dynamics in spin-triplet superconductor UTe2_2

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    The vortex dynamics in the spin-triplet superconductor, UTe2_2, are studied by measuring the DC electrical resistivity with currents along the aa-axis under magnetic fields along the bb-axis. Surprisingly, we have discovered an island region of low critical current deep inside the superconducting (SC) state, well below the SC upper critical field, attributed to a weakening of vortex pinning. Notably, this region coincides with the recently proposed intermediate-field SC state. We discuss the possibility of nonsingular vortices in the intermediate state, where SC order parameter does not vanish entirely in the vortex cores due to the mixing of multiple SC components
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