14,016 research outputs found

    Omega-3 Blood Levels and Stroke Risk:A Pooled and Harmonized Analysis of 183 291 Participants from 29 Prospective Studies

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    BACKGROUND: The effect of marine omega-3 PUFAs on risk of stroke remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated the associations between circulating and tissue omega-3 PUFA levels and incident stroke (total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic) in 29 international prospective cohorts. Each site conducted a de novo individual-level analysis using a prespecified analytical protocol with defined exposures, covariates, analytical methods, and outcomes; the harmonized data from the studies were then centrally pooled. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs across omega-3 PUFA quintiles were computed for each stroke outcome. RESULTS: Among 183 291 study participants, there were 10 561 total strokes, 8220 ischemic strokes, and 1142 hemorrhagic strokes recorded over a median of 14.3 years follow-up. For eicosapentaenoic acid, comparing quintile 5 (Q5, highest) with quintile 1 (Q1, lowest), total stroke incidence was 17% lower (HR, 0.83 [CI, 0.76-0.91]; P&lt;0.0001), and ischemic stroke was 18% lower (HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.74-0.91]; P&lt;0.0001). For docosahexaenoic acid, comparing Q5 with Q1, there was a 12% lower incidence of total stroke (HR, 0.88 [CI, 0.81-0.96]; P=0.0001) and a 14% lower incidence of ischemic stroke (HR, 0.86 [CI, 0.78-0.95]; P=0.0001). Neither eicosapentaenoic acid nor docosahexaenoic acid was associated with a risk for hemorrhagic stroke. These associations were not modified by either baseline history of AF or prevalent CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Higher omega-3 PUFA levels are associated with lower risks of total and ischemic stroke but have no association with hemorrhagic stroke.</p

    sj-xlsx-1-cep-10.1177_03331024231226177 - Supplemental material for Treatment patterns and characteristics of headache in patients in Japan: A retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of health insurance claims data

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    Supplemental material, sj-xlsx-1-cep-10.1177_03331024231226177 for Treatment patterns and characteristics of headache in patients in Japan: A retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of health insurance claims data by Masahito Katsuki, Yasuhiko Matsumori, Taisuke Ichihara, Yuya Yamada, Shin Kawamura, Kenta Kashiwagi, Akihito Koh, Tetsuya Goto, Kazuma Kaneko, Naomichi Wada and Fuminori Yamagishi in Cephalalgia</p

    Combination therapy with oral antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs improves the efficacy of delayed treatment in a COVID-19 hamster modelResearch in context

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    Summary: Background: Pulmonary infection with SARS-CoV-2 stimulates host immune responses and can also result in the progression of dysregulated and critical inflammation. Throughout the pandemic, the management and treatment of COVID-19 has been continuously updated with a range of antiviral drugs and immunomodulators. Monotherapy with oral antivirals has proven to be effective in the treatment of COVID-19. However, treatment should be initiated in the early stages of infection to ensure beneficial therapeutic outcomes, and there is still room for further consideration on therapeutic strategies using antivirals. Methods: We studied the therapeutic effects of monotherapy with the oral antiviral ensitrelvir or the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid methylprednisolone and combination therapy with ensitrelvir and methylprednisolone in a delayed dosing model of hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2. Findings: Combination therapy with ensitrelvir and methylprednisolone improved respiratory conditions and reduced the development of pneumonia in hamsters even when the treatment was started after 2 days post-infection. The combination therapy led to a differential histological and transcriptomic pattern in comparison to either of the monotherapies, with reduced lung damage and down-regulation of expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, we found that the combination treatment is effective in case of infection with either the highly pathogenic delta or circulating omicron variants. Interpretation: Our results demonstrate the advantage of combination therapy with antiviral and corticosteroid drugs in COVID-19 treatment from the perspective of lung pathology and host inflammatory responses. Funding: Funding bodies are described in the Acknowledgments section

    Real-Time Measurement of Antiglaucoma Drugs in Porcine Eyes Using Boron-Doped Diamond Microelectrodes

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    The primary treatment for glaucoma, the most common cause of intermediate vision impairment, involves administering ocular hypotensive drugs in the form of topical eye drops. Observing real-time changes in the drugs that pass through the cornea and reach the anterior chamber of the eye is crucial for improving and developing safe, reliable, and effective medical treatments. Traditional methods for measuring temporal changes in drug concentrations in the aqueous humor employ separation analyzers such as LC‚ÄďMS/MS. However, this technique requires multiple measurements on the eyes of various test subjects to track changes over time with a high temporal resolution. To address this issue, we have developed a measurement method that employs boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes to monitor real-time drug concentrations in the anterior chamber of the eye. First, we confirmed the electrochemical reactivity of 13 antiglaucoma drugs in a phosphate buffer solution with a pH of 7.4. Next, we optimized the method for continuous measurement of timolol maleate (TIM), a sympathetic beta-receptor antagonist, and generated calibration curves for each BDD microelectrode using aqueous humor collected from enucleated porcine eyes. We successfully demonstrated the continuous ex vivo monitoring of TIM concentrations in the anterior chambers of these enucleated porcine eyes. The results indicate that changes in intracameral TIM concentrations can be monitored through electrochemical measurements using BDD microelectrodes. This technique holds promise for future advancements in optimizing glaucoma treatment and drug administration strategies

    sj-pdf-2-cep-10.1177_03331024231226177 - Supplemental material for Treatment patterns and characteristics of headache in patients in Japan: A retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of health insurance claims data

    No full text
    Supplemental material, sj-pdf-2-cep-10.1177_03331024231226177 for Treatment patterns and characteristics of headache in patients in Japan: A retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of health insurance claims data by Masahito Katsuki, Yasuhiko Matsumori, Taisuke Ichihara, Yuya Yamada, Shin Kawamura, Kenta Kashiwagi, Akihito Koh, Tetsuya Goto, Kazuma Kaneko, Naomichi Wada and Fuminori Yamagishi in Cephalalgia</p

    Universal Transitions between Growth and Dormancy via Intermediate Complex Formation

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    A simple cell model consisting of a catalytic reaction network with intermediate complex formation is numerically studied. As nutrients are depleted, the transition from the exponential growth phase to the growth-arrested dormant phase occurs along with hysteresis and a lag time for growth recovery. This transition is caused by the accumulation of intermediate complexes, leading to the jamming of reactions and the diversification of components. These properties are generic in random reaction networks, as supported by dynamical systems analyses of corresponding mean-field models.Comment: 6+6 pages, 3+6 figure

    Chinese State Media Persuades a Global Audience That the ‚ÄúChina Model‚ÄĚ is Superior:Evidence From A 19-Country Experiment

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    Many are skeptical of the appeal of authoritarian political systems. By contrast, we argue that global audiences will embrace authoritarian models when they believe that autocracies can meet governance challenges better than democracies. We conduct a randomized experiment in 19 countries across 6 continents exposing a global audience to real messages from the Chinese and American governments’ external media arms. We also collect comprehensive data on the external messaging of the Chinese and American governments. We find that exposure to a representative set of Chinese mes- sages strengthens perceptions that the CCP delivers growth, stability, and competent leadership. It also triples the proportion of respondents who think the Chinese system is superior to the American system, from 16 to 54 percent. In head-to-head match- ups, messages from the U.S. government are less persuasive. Our findings show how autocracies build global support by selling growth and competence, with important implications for democratic resilience

    Long term administration of loquat leaves and their major component, ursolic acid, attenuated endogenous amyloid-ő≤ burden and memory impairment

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    Abstract Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves contain many bioactive components such as ursolic acid (UA) and amygdalin. We investigated the effects of loquat leaf powder and methanol extract in human neuroglioma H4 cells stably expressing the Swedish-type APP695 (APPNL-H4 cells) and C57BL/6¬†J mice. Surprisingly, the extract greatly enhanced cellular amyloid-beta peptide (Aő≤) 42 productions in APPNL-H4 cells. Administration of leaf powder increased Aő≤42 levels after 3¬†months and decreased levels after 12¬†months compared to control mice. Leaf powder had no effect on working memory after 3¬†months, but improved working memory after 12¬†months. Administration of UA decreased Aő≤42 and P-tau levels and improved working memory after 12¬†months, similar to the administration of leave powder for 12¬†months. Amygdalin enhanced cellular Aő≤42 production in APPNL-H4 cells, which was the same as the extract. Three-month administration of amygdalin increased Aő≤42 levels slightly but did not significantly increase them, which is similar to the trend observed with the administration of leaf powder for 3¬†months. UA was likely the main compound contained in loquat leaves responsible for the decrease in intracerebral Aő≤42 and P-tau levels. Also, amygdalin might be one of the compounds responsible for the transiently increased intracerebral Aő≤42 levels

    Impact of the omicron phase on a highly advanced medical facility in Japan

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    BackgroundEight waves of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic have been observed in Japan. This retrospective study was conducted to clarify the clinical characteristics of pediatric COVID-19 patients.MethodsWe studied 121 patients admitted to the Jichi Children's Medical Center Tochigi between April 2020 and March 2023. Incidence of pediatric COVID-19 in Tochigi Prefecture was used to examine hospitalization and severe illness rates.ResultsThe mean age of the patients was 3 years and 8 months. One hundred and eleven patients (91.7%) were hospitalized after January 2022 (after the 6th wave), when the Omicron strain became endemic in Japan. Convulsions occurred in 30 patients (24.8%), all of whom were admitted after the 6th wave. Twenty-three of the 30 patients had no underlying disease. Eleven patients (9.1%) were diagnosed with acute encephalopathy. One patient died due to hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome and two had sequelae after the 6th wave. The patient who died due to encephalopathy had hypercytokinemia. In the Tochigi Prefecture, the number of pediatric COVID-19 patients increased after the 6th wave, but the hospitalization rate declined. The rate of severe illness did not change before the end of 5th and after the 6th wave.ConclusionAlthough the rate of severe illness in patients with pediatric COVID-19 did not increase after the 6th wave, some patients had complicated critical illnesses. Systemic inflammatory reaction was considered to have been associated with the severe encephalopathy
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