50 research outputs found

    Correlation Between Defense Mechanisms and Readiness to Change Among Relapsing Addicts

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    The number of relapsing addicts is increasingly worrying from year to year. This study was conducted to examine at the relationship between defense mechanisms and the level of readiness to change in relapsing addicts. Although the drug addicts have been treated at the treatment center, however, repeated cases of drug addicts still occur. Six research questions were developed to see how far the variables consisting of defense mechanisms could correlate with readiness to change among addicts who were undergoing treatment. This study was carried out involving 125 addicts in two separate treatment centers in Melaka and Selangor. The selected sample were addicts who have undergone a relapse phase at least once in drug addiction. Statistical data analysis using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences 20 (SPSS-20) were used to analyze the data. Statistical descriptive is used to view the results of demographic data constructed. T-test and ANOVA are used to see the relationship between the variables. The regression analysis is used to predict the defense mechanisms with the stage of readiness to change among relapsing addicts. The results showed that the defense mechanism had a significant relationship to the stage of readiness to change among samples. The results of this study provide information on treatment services in the drug rehabilitation to improve the treatment method appropriately to the drug addicts in preventing relapse

    Ionic Liquid Enhancement of Polymer Electrolyte Conductivity and their Effects on the Performance of Electrochemical Devices

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    Ionic liquids (ILs) are molten salts at ambient temperature and consist of poorly coordinating cations and anions. They have good electrical conductivity with a wide voltage window and high thermal stability, but negligible vapor pressure. ILs can enhance ionic conductivity when added to polymer electrolytes. Conductivity enhancement is due to the additional ions supplied by the IL, the plasticizing nature of the IL and the low viscosity that facilitates ion mobility. The plasticizing nature of ILs softens the polymer chain giving rise to easier polymer segmental motion. Increase in polymer segmental motion implies that IL can increase amorphousness of a polymer electrolyte (PE). This article discusses the involvement of ionic liquid as electrolytes in selected devices, namely dye sensitized photovoltaics, batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors

    The Role of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels in the Transduction of Dental Pain

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    Dental pain is a common health problem that negatively impacts the activities of daily living. Dentine hypersensitivity and pulpitis-associated pain are among the most common types of dental pain. Patients with these conditions feel pain upon exposure of the affected tooth to various external stimuli. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain, especially the transduction of external stimuli to electrical signals in the nerve, remain unclear. Numerous ion channels and receptors localized in the dental primary afferent neurons (DPAs) and odontoblasts have been implicated in the transduction of dental pain, and functional expression of various polymodal transient receptor potential (TRP) channels has been detected in DPAs and odontoblasts. External stimuli-induced dentinal tubular fluid movement can activate TRP channels on DPAs and odontoblasts. The odontoblasts can in turn activate the DPAs by paracrine signaling through ATP and glutamate release. In pulpitis, inflammatory mediators may sensitize the DPAs. They could also induce post-translational modifications of TRP channels, increase trafficking of these channels to nerve terminals, and increase the sensitivity of these channels to stimuli. Additionally, in caries-induced pulpitis, bacterial products can directly activate TRP channels on DPAs. In this review, we provide an overview of the TRP channels expressed in the various tooth structures, and we discuss their involvement in the development of dental pain

    A study on removal characteristics of (Mn2+) from aqueous solution by CNT

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    It is important to remove manganese from water because of its effects on human and the environment. Human activities are one of the biggest contributors for excessive manganese concentration in the environment. The proposed method to remove manganese in aqueous solution by using adsorption as in carbon nanotubes (CNT) at different parameters: The parameters are CNT dosage, pH, agitation speed and contact time. Different pHs are pH 6.0, pH 6.5, pH 7.0, pH 7.5 and pH 8.0, CNT dosages are 5mg, 6.25mg, 7.5mg, 8.75mg or 10mg, contact time are 10 min, 32.5 min, 55 min, 87.5 min and 120 min while the agitation speeds are 100rpm, 150rpm, 200rpm, 250rpm and 300rpm. The parameters chosen for experiments are based on experimental design done by using Central Composite Design, Design Expert 6.0 with 4 parameters, 5 levels and 2 replications. Based on the results, condition set at pH 7.0, agitation speed of 300 rpm, 7.5mg and contact time 55 minutes gives the highest removal with 75.5%. From ANOVA analysis in Design Expert 6.0, the residual concentration will be very much affected by pH and CNT dosage. Initial manganese concentration is 1.2mg/L while the lowest residual concentration achieved is 0.294mg/L, which almost satisfy DOE Malaysia Standard B requirement. Therefore, further experiments must be done to remove manganese from model water to the required standard (0.2 mg/L) with the initial concentration set to 0.294 mg/L

    Development of Malaysian Homestay Tourism : A Review

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    Malaysian homestay tourism is a type of community-based tourism (CBT) that differs from homestay tourism in other regions. The homestay accommodation program is a unique tourism product enabling tourists to experience the culture and lifestyle of local people. Homestays are intended to attract tourists with a certain demographic profile who desire authentic experiences. Thus far, the commitment to homestay development has involved the establishment of comprehensive planning, the construction of infrastructure, and the promotion of Malaysia. However, the homestay business can also contribute significant supplemental income to local people and can instill mindfulness regarding preserving the cultural legacy of Malaysia. Therefore, homestays are a potentially a pro-poor tourism strategy, as well as an ecotourism tool to enhance local quality of life and social capital in Malaysia

    Personal and Environment Factors Associated with Attraction to Tropical Urban Parks in Peninsular Malaysia

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    There is increasing demand for urban parks as recreational areas amidst urbanization in Malaysia. Urban parks are the most readily accessible resource for interactions with nature across multi groups in many urban cities, including tropical cities. This paper reports a research conducted in 2013/2014 to determine the overall quality of visits and park users level of motivations in selected six public parks in Peninsular Malaysia. The result of this study which examined 2,139 park users in 2013/2014 level of motivation and overall quality of visit in selected six public parks in Peninsular Malaysia and the result shows that about three quarter of the users are youths between 17 and 36 years old. For the quality of visit attributes, park users rated "nature and environment" as the highest dimensions with mean score (M = 4.11). The statistical analysis showed that element of shadiness as an important factor for nature motivation. The common shadiness element experienced by urban park users were considered to be unique landscape and significantly different from Western and developed countries

    A Review On Mobile Game Learning Applications Trends

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    Technology has become the most priority in everyday life for everybody. It has been used for variety of uses such as for military, manufacturing, medical and education. Nowadays, young generation or youth has been exposed drastically with the latest technology and most of them are very high-tech students. Besides that, mobile technology has been grown rapidly and from this experiencing of mobile technology, the prices for mobile devices has been dropped or reduced which make the most people become capable to own a mobile device. As we known, the mobile device has provided various function and application. One of them is a games application that allows the user to have a learning experience. The game application has been used for learning purposes in education which included in various types of games and different learning content. This paper aim to systematically review in this topic of mobile game application for learning. A total of 42 papers were identified and 10 papers were included for this review. The review will be focusing on the acceptance of the mobile game application for learning. The reviewed papers have been selected using different search engines and the papers have been filtered to meet the objective of this paper. Most of the reviewed paper show positive effect on the usage of the game application for learning and improve their learning process. Mobile game application which has been used for learning is not a new field as the paper reviewed from this study is from 2012 until 2019. It will keep continue as mobile technology has become necessity in everyday li

    Modeling and Speed Control for Sensorless DC Motor BLDC Based on Real Time Experiement

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    This paper presents a modeling of the Brushless DC motor based on the system identification method. The input and output data were collected and simulated based on the real-time experiment. Taking a continues time form for the system model, a transfer function was selected in this work. The potentiometer has been used to send  Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals as input signal to the Brushless DC motor to determine the open-loop model of brushless DC motor (BLDC). LM2907 Tachometer attached with Brushless DC motor driver to measure the output speed. The input signal and measured output data were interfaced to plant by C code generation Matlab/Simulink through Arduino Mega controller. System identification toolbox was used for collecting data to obtain the estimates model. The best fit found for the system was 90.2%. The PID controller was developed to control the desired speed based on the given speed to demonstrate the feasibility of the given method.  &nbsp

    Motivations for outdoor recreation in tropical urban parks

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    The modern urban environments generally limit people’s access to nature has resulting in reduced human–nature interaction.Thus, establishment of urban parks are potential resource for a diversity of urban people to interact with nature including in urban tropical cities. This article will determine individual or the park characteristics has influenced the park users’ level of satisfaction in selected five public parks including Penang Municipal Park and Taiping Lake Garden, Perak. The park users’ strongly agreed that peaceful attribute as the main attraction in urban parks (Mean = 4.21). Daily trips to the parks had reduce their stress (M= 4.42); strengthen relationships with families and friends (M = 4.20) and they felt happier (M= 4.13). The Malay, male, youth group (15 to 24 years old), single and people with lower income (< MYR 3000) were dominated in the urban parks, and many of them were universities and higher grade levels.The statistical analysis confirmed socio-demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, and education attainment) significantly influenced the satisfaction on nature attractions. Peaceful surrounding and outdoor recreation activities in urban parks enrich urbanities psychological and social benefit (stress reduction, become happy and strengthen relationships), which positive reflect people’s well-being and quality of life.Urban people also prefer park with a variety of recreation activities instead attractive natural areas.Notably, it fulfils the needs of open spaces increment in sustainable cities for positive community transformation in social and psychological benefit

    Effect of methanol extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves against paracetamol- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver toxicity in rats

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    The present study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves (MEDL) using two models of liver injury in r ats. Rats (n = 6) received 10% DMSO(negative control), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control) or MEDL (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 days and 3 hours after the last adminis tration of the test solutions, they were subjected to the hepatotoxic induction either using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or paracetamol (PCM). The bloods and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. From the data obtained, all doses of MEDL significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in CCl4-induced hepatotoxic rats while only the 500 mg/kg MEDL caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the level of both enzymes in the PCM-induced liver toxicity model. The histological results obtained were in line with the biochemical analysis. In conclusion, the MEDL-induced hepatoprotective activity is attributed partly to its free radicals scavenging and antioxidant activities and high flav onoids content
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