6,511 research outputs found

    Multimessenger Characterization of Markarian 501 during Historically Low X-Ray and ő≥-Ray Activity

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    We study the broadband emission of Mrk 501 using multiwavelength observations from 2017 to 2020 performed with a multitude of instruments, involving, among others, MAGIC, Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT), NuSTAR, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Mrk 501 showed an extremely low broadband activity, which may help to unravel its baseline emission. Nonetheless, significant flux variations are detected at all wave bands, with the highest occurring at X-rays and very-high-energy (VHE) ő≥ -rays. A significant correlation (>3 ŌÉ ) between X-rays and VHE ő≥ -rays is measured, supporting leptonic scenarios to explain the variable parts of the emission, also during low activity. This is further supported when we extend our data from 2008 to 2020, and identify, for the first time, significant correlations between the Swift X-Ray Telescope and Fermi-LAT. We additionally find correlations between high-energy ő≥ -rays and radio, with the radio lagging by more than 100 days, placing the ő≥ -ray emission zone upstream of the radio-bright regions in the jet. Furthermore, Mrk 501 showed a historically low activity in X-rays and VHE ő≥ -rays from mid-2017 to mid-2019 with a stable VHE flux (>0.2 TeV) of 5% the emission of the Crab Nebula. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of this 2 yr long low state, the potential baseline emission of Mrk 501, can be characterized with one-zone leptonic models, and with (lepto)-hadronic models fulfilling neutrino flux constraints from IceCube. We explore the time evolution of the SED toward the low state, revealing that the stable baseline emission may be ascribed to a standing shock, and the variable emission to an additional expanding or traveling shock

    Performance of the joint LST-1 and MAGIC observations evaluated with Crab Nebula data

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    International audienceAims. LST-1, the prototype of the Large-Sized Telescope for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, is concluding its commissioning in Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma. The proximity of LST-1 (Large-Sized Telescope 1) to the two MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes permits observations of the same gamma-ray events with both systems. Methods. We describe the joint LST-1+MAGIC analysis pipeline and use simultaneous Crab Nebula observations and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the performance of the three-telescope system. The addition of the LST-1 telescope allows the recovery of events in which one of the MAGIC images is too dim to survive analysis quality cuts. Results. Thanks to the resulting increase in the collection area and stronger background rejection, we find a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing the detection of 30% weaker fluxes in the energy range between 200 GeV and 3 TeV. The spectrum of the Crab Nebula, reconstructed in the energy range ~60 GeV to ~10 TeV, is in agreement with previous measurements

    Star tracking for pointing determination of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Application to the Large-Sized Telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

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    International audienc

    A lower bound on intergalactic magnetic fields from time variability of 1ES 0229+200 from MAGIC and Fermi /LAT observations

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    Context. Extended and delayed emission around distant TeV sources induced by the effects of propagation of ? ray s through the intergalactic medium can be used for the measurement of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). Aims. We search for delayed GeV emission from the hard-spectrum TeV ?-ray emitting blazar 1ES 0229+200, with the goal of detecting or constraining the IGMF-dependent secondary flux generated during the propagation of TeV ? rays through the intergalactic medium. Methods. We analysed the most recent MAGIC observations over a 5 year time span, and complemented them with historic data of the H.E.S.S. and VERITAS telescopes, along with a 12-year-long exposure of the Fermi/LAT telescope. We used them to trace source evolution in the GeV TeV band over a decade and a half. We used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the delayed secondary ?-ray flux, modulated by the source variability, as revealed by TeV-band observations. We then compared these predictions for various assumed IGMF strengths to all available measurements of the ?-ray flux evolution. Results. We find that the source flux in the energy range above 200 GeV experiences variations around its average on the 14-year time span of observations. No evidence for the flux variability is found in the 1100 GeV energy range accessible to Fermi/LAT. The non-detection of variability due to delayed emission from electromagnetic cascade developing in the intergalactic medium imposes a lower bound of B > 1.8 - 1017 G for the long-correlation-length IGMF and B > 1014 G for an IGMF of cosmological origin. Though weaker than the one previously derived from the analysis of Fermi/LAT data, this bound is more robust, being based on a conservative intrinsic source spectrum estimate and accounting for the details of source variability in the TeV energy band. We discuss implications of this bound for cosmological magnetic fields that might explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe

    Performance of the joint LST-1 and MAGIC observations evaluated with Crab Nebula data

    No full text
    International audienceAims. LST-1, the prototype of the Large-Sized Telescope for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, is concluding its commissioning in Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma. The proximity of LST-1 (Large-Sized Telescope 1) to the two MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes permits observations of the same gamma-ray events with both systems. Methods. We describe the joint LST-1+MAGIC analysis pipeline and use simultaneous Crab Nebula observations and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the performance of the three-telescope system. The addition of the LST-1 telescope allows the recovery of events in which one of the MAGIC images is too dim to survive analysis quality cuts. Results. Thanks to the resulting increase in the collection area and stronger background rejection, we find a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing the detection of 30% weaker fluxes in the energy range between 200 GeV and 3 TeV. The spectrum of the Crab Nebula, reconstructed in the energy range ~60 GeV to ~10 TeV, is in agreement with previous measurements

    Performance of the joint LST-1 and MAGIC observations evaluated with Crab Nebula data

    No full text
    International audienceAims. LST-1, the prototype of the Large-Sized Telescope for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, is concluding its commissioning in Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma. The proximity of LST-1 (Large-Sized Telescope 1) to the two MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes permits observations of the same gamma-ray events with both systems. Methods. We describe the joint LST-1+MAGIC analysis pipeline and use simultaneous Crab Nebula observations and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the performance of the three-telescope system. The addition of the LST-1 telescope allows the recovery of events in which one of the MAGIC images is too dim to survive analysis quality cuts. Results. Thanks to the resulting increase in the collection area and stronger background rejection, we find a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing the detection of 30% weaker fluxes in the energy range between 200 GeV and 3 TeV. The spectrum of the Crab Nebula, reconstructed in the energy range ~60 GeV to ~10 TeV, is in agreement with previous measurements

    Multimessenger Characterization of Markarian 501 during Historically Low X-Ray and ő≥-Ray Activity

    Get PDF
    We study the broadband emission of Mrk 501 using multiwavelength observations from 2017 to 2020 performed with a multitude of instruments, involving, among others, MAGIC, Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT), NuSTAR, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Mrk 501 showed an extremely low broadband activity, which may help to unravel its baseline emission. Nonetheless, significant flux variations are detected at all wave bands, with the highest occurring at X-rays and very-high-energy (VHE) 3-rays. A significant correlation (>3ŌÉ) between X-rays and VHE 3-rays is measured, supporting leptonic scenarios to explain the variable parts of the emission, also during low activity. This is further supported when we extend our data from 2008 to 2020, and identify, for the first time, significant correlations between the Swift X-Ray Telescope and Fermi-LAT. We additionally find correlations between high-energy 3-rays and radio, with the radio lagging by more than 100 days, placing the 3-ray emission zone upstream of the radio-bright regions in the jet. Furthermore, Mrk 501 showed a historically low activity in X-rays and VHE 3-rays from mid-2017 to mid-2019 with a stable VHE flux (>0.2 TeV) of 5% the emission of the Crab Nebula. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of this 2 yr long low state, the potential baseline emission of Mrk 501, can be characterized with one-zone leptonic models, and with (lepto)-hadronic models fulfilling neutrino flux constraints from IceCube. We explore the time evolution of the SED toward the low state, revealing that the stable baseline emission may be ascribed to a standing shock, and the variable emission to an additional expanding or traveling shock. ¬© 2023. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society

    Performance of the joint LST-1 and MAGIC observations evaluated with Crab Nebula data

    No full text
    Aims. LST-1, the prototype of the Large-Sized Telescope for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, is concluding its commissioning in Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma. The proximity of LST-1 (Large-Sized Telescope 1) to the two MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes permits observations of the same gamma-ray events with both systems. Methods. We describe the joint LST-1+MAGIC analysis pipeline and use simultaneous Crab Nebula observations and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the performance of the three-telescope system. The addition of the LST-1 telescope allows the recovery of events in which one of the MAGIC images is too dim to survive analysis quality cuts. Results. Thanks to the resulting increase in the collection area and stronger background rejection, we find a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing the detection of 30% weaker fluxes in the energy range between 200 GeV and 3 TeV. The spectrum of the Crab Nebula, reconstructed in the energy range ~60 GeV to ~10 TeV, is in agreement with previous measurements

    Biocompatible topical delivery system of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan into human stratum corneum using magnesium chloride

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    Abstract Non-invasive delivery of hyaluronan into the stratum corneum (SC) is extremely difficult because of its high molecular weight and the strong barrier of the SC. We developed a safe method of administering hyaluronan into the human SC and determined its penetration route. The amount of hyaluronan that penetrated into the SC was 1.5‚Äď3 times higher in the presence of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2) than other metal chlorides. The root-mean-square radius of hyaluronan in water decreased with the addition of MgCl2. Moreover, MgCl2 solutions maintained their dissolved state on a plastic plate for a long time, suggesting that size compaction and inhibition of hyaluronan precipitation on the skin enhanced hyaluronan into the SC. Our results also strongly suggest that an intercellular route contributes to the penetration of hyaluronan from the upper to the middle layer of the SC. No disruption to the SC barrier was observed after continuous use once a day for 1¬†month, demonstrating the potential of our method for the safe, topical application of hyaluronan

    Study of the GeV to TeV morphology of the ő≥\gamma Cygni SNR (G 78.2+2.1) with MAGIC and Fermi-LAT - Evidence for cosmic ray escape

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    Context. Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is the most promising mechanism that accelerates Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) in the shocks of supernova remnants (SNRs). It is based on particles scattering caused by turbulence ahead and behind the shock. The turbulence upstream is supposedly generated by the CRs, but this process is not well understood. The dominant mechanism may depend on the evolutionary state of the shock and can be studied via the CRs escaping upstream into the interstellar medium (ISM).Aims. Previous observations of the ő≥ Cygni SNR showed a difference in morphology between GeV and TeV energies. Since this SNR has the right age and is at the evolutionary stage for a significant fraction of CRs to escape, our aim is to understand ő≥-ray emission in the vicinity of the ő≥ Cygni SNR.Methods. We observed the region of the ő≥ Cygni SNR with the MAGIC Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes between 2015 May and 2017 September recording 87 h of good-quality data. Additionally, we analysed Fermi-LAT data to study the energy dependence of the morphology as well as the energy spectrum in the GeV to TeV range. The energy spectra and morphology were compared against theoretical predictions, which include a detailed derivation of the CR escape process and their ő≥-ray generation.Results. The MAGIC and Fermi-LAT data allowed us to identify three emission regions that can be associated with the SNR and that dominate at different energies. Our hadronic emission model accounts well for the morphology and energy spectrum of all source components. It constrains the time-dependence of the maximum energy of the CRs at the shock, the time-dependence of the level of turbulence, and the diffusion coefficient immediately outside the SNR shock. While in agreement with the standard picture of DSA, the time-dependence of the maximum energy was found to be steeper than predicted, and the level of turbulence was found to change over the lifetime of the SNR.Key words: acceleration of particles / cosmic rays / gamma rays: general / gamma rays: ISM / ISM: clouds / ISM: supernova remnants
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