322,421 research outputs found

    Merging dynamics of dual parallel linear diffusion flames

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    202203 bcvcSelf-fundedPublished24 month

    Spatial analysis of the impact of urban geometry and socio-demographic characteristics on COVID-19, a study in Hong Kong

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    202207 bcfcNot applicableRGCOthersthe Research Institute for Sustainable Urban Development, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University; the Research Committee on Research Sustainability of Major RGC Funding Schemes of the Chinese University of Hong KongPublished24 month

    Conventional and advanced exergy analyses of a vehicular proton exchange membrane fuel cell power system

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    Title on author’s file: Conventional and advanced exergy analysis of a vehicular proton exchange membrane fuel cell power system202208 bcwwOthersChina National Science Foundation of China; the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Low-Carbon Conversion Science & Engineering, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science; Collaborative Innovation Center of Building Energy Conservation and Environmental ControlPublished24 month

    Conditional Adapters: Parameter-efficient Transfer Learning with Fast Inference

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    We propose Conditional Adapter (CoDA), a parameter-efficient transfer learning method that also improves inference efficiency. CoDA generalizes beyond standard adapter approaches to enable a new way of balancing speed and accuracy using conditional computation. Starting with an existing dense pretrained model, CoDA adds sparse activation together with a small number of new parameters and a light-weight training phase. Our experiments demonstrate that the CoDA approach provides an unexpectedly efficient way to transfer knowledge. Across a variety of language, vision, and speech tasks, CoDA achieves a 2x to 8x inference speed-up compared to the state-of-the-art Adapter approach with moderate to no accuracy loss and the same parameter efficiency

    Liquid flow spinning mass-manufactured paraffin cored yarn for thermal management and ultra-high protection

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    Thermal management and ultra-high protection textiles are critical for polar scientists, astronauts and firefighters. Phase change materials (PCMs) effectively retard huge thermal changes, and thermal damage by absorbing or releasing heat during phase transition. However, due to the materials and engineering challenges inherent in PCMs based textiles, commercial PCMs usually suffer with high rigidity, no-breath-ability, easy leakage and abrasion, limiting their potential applications. Herein, we proposed a mass-producible liquid flow spinning (LFS) method, in which molten paraffin is poured into continuous hollow silicon tubes and then wrapped by staple fibers to form paraffin-coated yarns (PCYs) on a friction spinning frame. The obtained PCYs showed enhanced mechanical properties (break strength of 7.80 N, wear resistance of 2000 cycles) due to the novel core-sheath yarn structure. Besides, thanks to the high melting enthalpy (60.967 J/g) of PCYs, the yarns showed the excellent temperature regulating effect. A double-sided joint PCYs fabric (PCYF) is fabricated to study the PCYs performance further, results show that the PCYF can withstand 10,000 cycles of abrasion without breakage and PCMs leakage. Furthermore, owing to the much gaps provided by the stretch fibers and interweaving points, the fabric exhibits good breathability. In particular, compared with commercial PCMs based textiles, our PCYF is superior in thermal protection performance (9 °C lower). The fireproof performance is also excellent as our PCYF can withstand flame temperatures higher than 1142 °C. The PCYs production method provided here could pave the way for human thermal protection textiles

    Designing Amphiphilic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes for Self-Assembly into Straight-Chain Rod-like Micelles

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    Semiconducting polymers are a versatile class of materials that are used in many (opto)electronic applications, including organic photovoltaics. However, they are inherently disordered and suffer from poor conductivities due to bends and kinks in the polymer chains along the conjugated backbone, as well as disorder at grain boundaries. In an effort to reduce polymer disorder, we developed a method to straighten polymer chains by creating amphiphilic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) that self-assemble in water into worm-like micelles. The present work refines our design rules for self-assembly of CPEs. We present the synthesis and characterization of a straight, micelle-forming polymer, a derivative of poly(cyclopentadithiophene-alt-thiophene) (PCT) bearing two ammonium-charged groups per cyclopentadithiophene unit. Solution-phase self-assembly of PCT into micelles is observed by both small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), while detailed SAXS fitting allows for characterization of intra-micellar interactions and inter-micelle aggregation. We find that PCT displays significant chain straightening thanks to the lack of steric hindrance between its alternating cyclopentadithiophene and thiophene subunits, which increases the propensity for the polymer to self-assemble into straight rod-like micelles. This work extends the availability of micelle-forming semiconducting polymers and points to further enhancements that can be made to obtain homogeneous nanostructured polymer assemblies based on cylindrical micelles

    A universal fluorescence polarization high throughput screening assay to target the SAM-binding sites of SARS-CoV-2 and other viral methyltransferases

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    AbstractSARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic with significant humanity and economic loss since 2020. Currently, only limited options are available to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections for vulnerable populations. In this study, we report a universal fluorescence polarization (FP)-based high throughput screening (HTS) assay for SAM-dependent viral methyltransferases (MTases), using a fluorescent SAM-analog, FL-NAH. We performed the assay against a reference MTase, NSP14, an essential enzyme for SARS-CoV-2 to methylate the N7 position of viral 5’-RNA guanine cap. The assay is universal and suitable for any SAM-dependent viral MTases such as the SARS-CoV-2 NSP16/NSP10 MTase complex and the NS5 MTase of Zika virus (ZIKV). Pilot screening demonstrated that the HTS assay was very robust and identified two candidate inhibitors, NSC 111552 and 288387. The two compounds inhibited the FL-NAH binding to the NSP14 MTase with low micromolar IC50. We used three functional MTase assays to unambiguously verified the inhibitory potency of these molecules for the NSP14 N7-MTase function. Binding studies indicated that these molecules are bound directly to the NSP14 MTase with similar low micromolar affinity. Moreover, we further demonstrated that these molecules significantly inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell-based assays at concentrations not causing cytotoxicity. Furthermore, NSC111552 significantly synergized with known SARS-CoV-2 drugs including nirmatrelvir and remdesivir. Finally, docking suggested that these molecules bind specifically to the SAM-binding site on the NSP14 MTase. Overall, these molecules represent novel and promising candidates to further develop broad-spectrum inhibitors for the management of viral infections

    Measurement of <math><mi>ϕ</mi></math>-meson production in <math><mrow><mi>Cu</mi><mo>+</mo><mi>Au</mi></mrow></math> collisions at <math><mrow><msqrt><msub><mi>s</mi><mrow><mi>N</mi><mi>N</mi></mrow></msub></msqrt><mo>=</mo><mn>200</mn></mrow></math> GeV and <math><mrow><mi mathvariant="normal">U</mi><mo>+</mo><mi mathvariant="normal">U</mi></mrow></math> collisions at <math><mrow><msqrt><msub><mi>s</mi><mrow><mi>N</mi><mi>N</mi></mrow></msub></msqrt><mo>=</mo><mn>193</mn></mrow></math> GeV

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    International audienceThe PHENIX experiment reports systematic measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider of ϕ-meson production in asymmetric Cu+Au collisions at sNN=200GeV and in U+U collisions at sNN=193GeV. Measurements were performed via the ϕ→K+K− decay channel at midrapidity |η|&lt;0.35. Features of ϕ-meson production measured in Cu+Cu, Cu+Au, Au+Au, and U+U collisions were found to not depend on the collision geometry, which was expected because the yields are averaged over the azimuthal angle and follow the expected scaling with nuclear-overlap size. The elliptic flow of the ϕ meson in Cu+Au, Au+Au, and U+U collisions scales with second-order-participant eccentricity and the length scale of the nuclear-overlap region (estimated with the number of participating nucleons). At moderate pT, ϕ-meson production measured in Cu+Au and U+U collisions is consistent with coalescence-model predictions, whereas at high pT the production is in agreement with expectations for in-medium energy loss of parent partons prior to their fragmentation. The elliptic flow for ϕ mesons measured in Cu+Au and U+U collisions is well described by a (2+1)-dimensional viscous-hydrodynamic model with specific-shear viscosity η/s=1/4π

    SuperFGD prototype time resolution studies

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    The SuperFGD detector will be a novel and important upgrade to the ND280 near detector for both the T2K and Hyper-Kamiokande projects. The main goal of the ND280 upgrade is to reduce systematic uncertainties associated with neutrino flux and cross-section modeling for future studies of neutrino oscillations using the T2K and Hyper-Kamiokande experiments. The upgraded ND280 detector will be able to perform a full exclusive reconstruction of the final state from neutrino-nucleus interactions, including measurements of low momentum protons, pions and for the first time, event-by event measurements of neutron kinematics. Precisely understanding the time resolution is critical for the neutron energy measurements and hence an important factor in reducing the systematic uncertainties. In this paper we present the results of time resolution measurements made with the SuperFGD prototype that consists of 9216 plastic scintillator cubes (cube size is 1 cm3^{3}) readout with 1728 wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers along the three orthogonal directions. We used data from a muon beam exposure at CERN. A time resolution of 0.97 ns was obtained for one readout channel after implementing the time calibration with a correction for time-walk effects. The time resolution improves with increasing energy deposited in a scintillator cube, improving to 0.87 ns for large pulses. Averaging two readout channels for one scintillator cube further improves the time resolution to 0.68 ns implying that signals in different channels are not synchronous. In addition the contribution from the time sampling interval of 2.5 ns is averaged as well. Most importantly, averaging time values from N channels improves the time resolution by ∼ 1/√(N). For example, averaging the time from 2 scintillator cubes with 2 fibers each improves the time resolution to 0.47 ns which is much better than the intrinsic electronics time resolution of 0.72 ns in one channel due to the 2.5 ns sampling window. This indicates that a very good time resolution should be achievable for neutrons since neutron recoils typically interact with several scintillator cubes and in addition produce larger signal amplitudes than muons. Measurements performed with a laser and a wide-bandwidth oscilloscope in which the contribution from the electronics time sampling window was removed demonstrated that the time resolution obtained with the muon beam is not far from the theoretical limit. The intrinsic time resolution of a scintillator cube and one WLS fiber is about 0.67 ns for signals of 56 photo electrons which is typical for minimum ionizing particles

    Alignment of the CLAS12 central hybrid tracker with a Kalman Filter

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    International audienceSeveral factors can contribute to the difficulty of aligning the sensors of tracking detectors, including a large number of modules, multiple types of detector technologies, and non-linear strip patterns on the sensors. The latter two of these three factors apply to the CLAS12 CVT, which is a hybrid detector consisting of planar silicon sensors with non-parallel strips, and cylindrical micromegas sensors with longitudinal and arc-shaped strips located within a 5 T superconducting solenoid. To align this detector, we used the Kalman Alignment Algorithm, which accounts for correlations between the alignment parameters without requiring the time-consuming inversion of large matrices. This is the first time that this algorithm has been adapted for use with hybrid technologies, non-parallel strips, and curved sensors. We present the results for the first alignment of the CLAS12 CVT using straight tracks from cosmic rays and from a target with the magnetic field turned off. After running this procedure, we achieved alignment at the level of l. 967 10μm, and the widths of the residual spectra were greatly reduced. These results attest to the flexibility of this algorithm and its applicability to future use in the CLAS12 CVT and other hybrid or curved trackers, such as those proposed for the future Electron-Ion Collider