18 research outputs found

    Urban-Rural Disparity of Breast Cancer and Socioeconomic Risk Factors in China

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    <div><p>Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005–2009). The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student’s T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS) models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC) of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work’s findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women.</p></div

    Descriptive analysis of socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions.

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    <p>PD: population density, PNA: percentage of non-agriculture population, SIO: second industry output, PET: percentage of population employed in tertiary industry, EDU: average years of education, PEP: percentage of population employed in primary industry, PU: percentage of unemployed population (unemployment rate), PES: percentage of population employed in second industry, PI: percentage of illiteracy (illiteracy rate), PIO: primary industry output.</p><p>* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).</p><p>** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).</p><p>Descriptive analysis of socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions.</p

    Ordinary Least Squares (QLS) model for socioeconomic factors and breast cancer incidence.

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    <p>PD: population density, PNA: percentage of non-agriculture population, SIO: second industry output, PET: percentage of population employed in tertiary industry, EDU: average years of education, PEP: percentage of population employed in primary industry, PU: percentage of unemployed (unemployment rate), PES: percentage of population employed in second industry, PI: percentage of illiteracy (illiteracy rate), PIO: primary industry output, BC: Breast cancer incidence.</p><p>** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).</p><p>Ordinary Least Squares (QLS) model for socioeconomic factors and breast cancer incidence.</p

    Female breast cancer incidence, urban vs. rural (U/R).

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    <p>U: urban city, R: rural city, Incidence: 4-year average breast cancer incidence (1/100,000), CI: confidence interval.</p><p>Female breast cancer incidence, urban vs. rural (U/R).</p

    Female breast cancer incidence in Chinese urban <i>vs</i>. rural regions from 2005 to 2009.

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    <p>Female breast cancer incidence in Chinese urban <i>vs</i>. rural regions from 2005 to 2009.</p

    Geographic distribution of the cancer registries in China.

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    <p>Geographic distribution of the cancer registries in China.</p

    Pearson’s correlation coefficients between socioeconomic factors and breast cancer incidence.

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    <p>PD: population density, PNA: percentage of non-agriculture population, SIO: second industry output, PET: percentage of population employed in tertiary industry, EDU: average years of education, PEP: percentage of population employed in primary industry, PU: percentage of unemployed (unemployment rate), PES: percentage of population employed in second industry, PI: percentage of illiteracy (illiteracy rate), PIO: primary industry output, BC: Breast cancer incidence.</p><p>** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).</p><p>Pearson’s correlation coefficients between socioeconomic factors and breast cancer incidence.</p

    Comparison of breast cancer incidence in urban vs. rural regions (N = 31).

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    <p>U: urban city, R: rural city, N: the number of cities in urban/rural areas, incidence (1/100,000), STD: standard deviation, CI: confidence interval. <i>P</i>: significance of difference of incidence between urban and rural areas.</p><p>Comparison of breast cancer incidence in urban vs. rural regions (N = 31).</p

    Female breast cancer incidence in different age groups during 2005–2009<sup>a</sup>.

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    <p><sup>a</sup> Age groups: A: 0–24, B: 25–29, C: 30–34, D: 35–39, E: 40–44, F: 45–49, G: 50–54, H: 55–59, I: 60–64, J: 65–69, K: 70–74, L: 75–79, M: 80–84, N: > 85.</p
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