51 research outputs found

    Optimization of the cry1Ah1 Sequence Enhances the Hyper-Resistance of Transgenic Poplars to Hyphantria cunea

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    Increased expression of the insect control protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis in Populus has been critical to the development of genetically improved plants with agronomically acceptable levels of insect resistance. Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry1Ah1) proteins with highly specific toxicity against Hyphantria cunea were screened using an indoor bioactivity assay to obtain hyper-resistant transgenic poplars. Then, the Cry1Ah1 sequence was optimized and transformed according to the optimal codon in poplar using software of our own design ( A vector was constructed to transform poplar NL895. The Cry1Ah1 gene was transformed to poplar NL895 and six transgenic lines were obtained. The expression and insecticidal effect of the Cry1Ah1 gene in transgenic poplar were evaluated by PCR and ELISA, and the specific indoor activity and field insecticidal activity against H. cunea were compared with a control. We concluded that the insecticidal activity of the transgenic NL895 was significantly better against lower instar larvae of H. cunea than against higher instar larvae. The mortality and pupation rates clearly differed among the various instar larvae and between transgenic and non-transgenic poplar. We obtained poplar seedlings with hyper-resistance to H. cunea by screening Bt genes and optimizing their genetic sequence

    Technology of WAVE and Feature Cutter volume of manufacturing

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    A forward and automatic method for in-process model generation is proposed and integrated with three-dimensional computer aided process planning (CAPP) system. The method based on feature cutter volume of manufacturing drives the in-process model to evolve from blank to part, which is coincident with the manufacturing process and ideology of process design. At the same time, technology of What-if Alternative Value Engineering (WAVE) is implanted in the generation to establish the relationship of in-process models, which supports function of the automatic update for models. The paper introduces a theory of the solution to demonstrate the connection between manufacture feature and feature cutter volume, and detailedly presents the technological process in applying the WAVE technology. Examples are completed in a commercial CAPP system to illustrate the feasibility of this approach

    Effects of cutting size on the growth and wood property traits of short-rotation coppice willows

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    Short-rotation coppice willows, which are commonly propagated with cuttings, are promising bioenergy resource crops. In this study, a field trial with a completely randomized block design was carried out with 787 clones from three full-sib pedigrees involving two shrub willow species. A total of 7083 cuttings were planted in the field, and the mass of each cutting was recorded correspondingly. The mortality rate, growth traits, and wood property traits of each cutting-propagated plant were measured throughout a complete growing season. The obtained data showed that heavier cuttings produced shoots with lower mortality rate, higher height, thicker ground diameter, and larger biomass production than lighter cuttings. The cutting mass significantly improved plant performance, especially at the early developmental stages. However, the cutting mass had no effect on the basic density and the main chemical composition (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) of willow wood. This study provided essential information for improving the establishment of short-rotation coppice willow plantations.The accepted manuscript in pdf format is listed with the files at the bottom of this page. The presentation of the authors' names and (or) special characters in the title of the manuscript may differ slightly between what is listed on this page and what is listed in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript; that in the pdf file of the accepted manuscript is what was submitted by the author

    Genome-wide identification and characterization of the MADS-box gene family in Salix suchowensis

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    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that participate in various plant growth and development processes, particularly floral organogenesis. To date, MADS-box genes have been reported in many species, the completion of the sequence of the willow genome provides us with the opportunity to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the willow MADS-box gene family. Here, we identified 60 willow MADS-box genes using bioinformatics-based methods and classified them into 22 M-type (11 Mα, seven Mβ and four Mγ) and 38 MIKC-type (32 MIKCc and six MIKC*) genes based on a phylogenetic analysis. Fifty-six of the 60 SsMADS genes were randomly distributed on 19 putative willow chromosomes. By combining gene structure analysis with evolutionary analysis, we found that the MIKC-type genes were more conserved and played a more important role in willow growth. Further study showed that the MIKC* type was a transition between the M-type and MIKC-type. Additionally, the number of MADS-box genes in gymnosperms was notably lower than that in angiosperms. Finally, the expression profiles of these willow MADS-box genes were analysed in five different tissues (root, stem, leave, bud and bark) and validated by RT-qPCR experiments. This study is the first genome-wide analysis of the willow MADS-box gene family, and the results establish a basis for further functional studies of willow MADS-box genes and serve as a reference for related studies of other woody plants

    VGSC: A Web-Based Vector Graph Toolkit of Genome Synteny and Collinearity

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    Background. In order to understand the colocalization of genetic loci amongst species, synteny and collinearity analysis is a frequent task in comparative genomics research. However many analysis software packages are not effective in visualizing results. Problems include lack of graphic visualization, simple representation, or inextensible format of outputs. Moreover, higher throughput sequencing technology requires higher resolution image output. Implementation. To fill this gap, this paper publishes VGSC, the Vector Graph toolkit of genome Synteny and Collinearity, and its online service, to visualize the synteny and collinearity in the common graphical format, including both raster (JPEG, Bitmap, and PNG) and vector graphic (SVG, EPS, and PDF). Result. Users can upload sequence alignments from blast and collinearity relationship from the synteny analysis tools. The website can generate the vector or raster graphical results automatically. We also provide a java-based bytecode binary to enable the command-line execution