43,685 research outputs found

    Table_1_The relationship between intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: a retrospective study in 29 sub-Saharan African countries.DOCX

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    Introduction and backgroundIntimate partner violence (IPV) and child malnutrition are global public health issues. Assessing the association between IPV and child anthropometric failures (stunting, underweight, and wasting) in 29 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries can provide significant global health solutions. Some studies have found an association between IPV against women and child malnutrition, but the conclusions are inconsistent. The physical and psychological conditions, living environment, and rights of the mother may be involved.MethodsWe collected and analyzed the Demographic and Health Surveys data (2010–2021) of 29 SSA countries. The main exposure variables were various types of IPV, classified as physical, sexual, and emotional violence. The outcome was the child’s development index, which can be roughly divided into stunting, wasting, and underweight. An adjusted binary logistic regression model was used to test the relationship between IPV and children’s nutritional status.ResultsA total of 186,138 children under 5 years of age were included in the analysis; 50,113 (27.1%) of the children were stunted, 11,329 (6.1%) were wasted, and 39,459 (21.3%) were underweight in all regions. The child’s gender, age, duration of breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and vitamin A supplements intake in the past 6 months were associated with their nutritional status (p  0.05).ConclusionIPV is positively associated with child stunting in SSA countries. Sexual violence showed a strong positive correlation with stunting. Wasting was unexpectedly negatively associated with IPV. There was no clear correlation between underweight and violence.</p

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb−1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ±\pm 0.002 (stat) ±\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ±\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Roles of concentration-dependent Cu doping behaviors on the thermoelectric properties of n-type Mg3Sb1.5Bi0.5

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    Large Seebeck coefficients induced by high degeneracy of conduction band minimum, and low intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity originated from large lattice vibrational anharmonicity render Mg3Sb2 as a promising n-type thermoelectric material. Herein, we demonstrated unique concentration-dependent occupation behaviors of Cu in Mg3.4Sb1.5Bi0.49Te0.01 matrix, evidenced by structural characterization and transport property measurements. It is found that Cu atoms prefer to enter the interstitial lattice sites in Mg3Sb2 host with low doping level (Mg3.4Sb1.5Bi0.49Te0.01 + x% Cu, x < 0.3%), acting as donors for providing additional electrons without deteriorating the carrier mobility. When x is larger than 0.3%, the excessive Cu atoms are inclined to substitute Mg atoms, yielding acceptors to decrease the electron concentration. As a result, the electrical conductivity of the Mg3.4Sb1.5Bi0.49Te0.01 + 0.3% Cu sample reaches 2.3 × 104 S/m at 300 K, increasing by 300% compared with that of the pristine sample. The figure of merit zT values in the whole measured temperature range are significantly improved by the synergetic improvement of power factor and reduction of thermal conductivity. An average zT ∌1.07 from 323 K to 773 K has been achieved for the Mg3.4Sb1.5Bi0.49Te0.01 + 0.3% Cu sample, which is about 30% higher than that of the Mg3.4Sb1.5Bi0.49Te0.01 sample

    CEPC Technical Design Report -- Accelerator

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    International audienceThe Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is a large scientific project initiated and hosted by China, fostered through extensive collaboration with international partners. The complex comprises four accelerators: a 30 GeV Linac, a 1.1 GeV Damping Ring, a Booster capable of achieving energies up to 180 GeV, and a Collider operating at varying energy modes (Z, W, H, and ttbar). The Linac and Damping Ring are situated on the surface, while the Booster and Collider are housed in a 100 km circumference underground tunnel, strategically accommodating future expansion with provisions for a Super Proton Proton Collider (SPPC). The CEPC primarily serves as a Higgs factory. In its baseline design with synchrotron radiation (SR) power of 30 MW per beam, it can achieve a luminosity of 5e34 /cm^2/s^1, resulting in an integrated luminosity of 13 /ab for two interaction points over a decade, producing 2.6 million Higgs bosons. Increasing the SR power to 50 MW per beam expands the CEPC's capability to generate 4.3 million Higgs bosons, facilitating precise measurements of Higgs coupling at sub-percent levels, exceeding the precision expected from the HL-LHC by an order of magnitude. This Technical Design Report (TDR) follows the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (Pre-CDR, 2015) and the Conceptual Design Report (CDR, 2018), comprehensively detailing the machine's layout and performance, physical design and analysis, technical systems design, R&D and prototyping efforts, and associated civil engineering aspects. Additionally, it includes a cost estimate and a preliminary construction timeline, establishing a framework for forthcoming engineering design phase and site selection procedures. Construction is anticipated to begin around 2027-2028, pending government approval, with an estimated duration of 8 years. The commencement of experiments could potentially initiate in the mid-2030s

    Hsa_circ_0001583 fuels bladder cancer metastasis by promoting staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1-mediated MicroRNA decay

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    Muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer indicates extra worse prognosis. Accumulating evidence roots for the prominent role of circular RNAs(circRNAs) in bladder cancer, while the mechanisms linking circRNAs and bladder cancer metastasis remain limitedly investigated. Here, we identified a significantly upregulated circRNA candidate, hsa_circ_0001583, from online datasets. Validated by qRT-PCR, PCR, sanger sequencing, actinomycin D and RNase R digestion experiments, hsa_circ_0001583 was proved to be a genuine circular RNA with higher expression levels in bladder cancer tissue. Through gain and loss of function experiments, hsa_circ_0001583 exhibited potent migration and invasion powers both in vitro and in vivo. The staphylococcal nuclease and Tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) was identified as an authentic binding partner for hsa_circ_0001583 through RNA pulldown and RIP experiments. Elevated levels of hsa_circ_0001583 could bind more to SND1 and protect the latter from degradation. Rescue experiments demonstrated that such interaction-induced increased in SND1 levels in bladder cancer cells enabled the protein to pump its endonuclease activity, leading to the degradation of tumor-suppressing MicroRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-126-3p, the suppressor of Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain-Containing Protein 9 (ADAM9), ultimately driving cells into a highly migrative and invasive state. In summary, our study is the first to highlight the upregulation of hsa_circ_0001583 in bladder cancer and its role in downregulating miR-126-3p by binding to and stabilizing the SND1 protein, thereby promoting bladder cancer cell migration and invasion. This study adds hsa_circ_0001583 to the pool of bladder cancer metastasis biomarkers and therapeutic targets

    Image_5_Early fecal microbiota transplantation from high abdominal fat chickens affects recipient cecal microbiome and metabolism.jpeg

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    Abdominal fat deposition (AFD) in chickens is closely related to the gut microecological balance. In this study, the gut microbiota from high-AFD chickens was transplanted into the same strain of 0-day-old chicks via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The FTM from chickens with high AFD had no obvious effects on growth traits, adult body weight, carcass weight, abdominal fat weight, and abdominal fat percentage, but did reduce the coefficient of variation of AFD traits. FMT significantly decreased cecal microbiome richness, changed the microbiota structure, and regulated the biological functions associated with energy metabolism and fat synthesis. Additionally, the cecal metabolite composition and metabolic function of FMT recipient chickens were also significantly altered from those of the controls. Transplantation of high-AFD chicken gut microbiota promoted fatty acid elongation and biosynthesis and reduced the metabolism of vitamins, steroids, and carbohydrates in the cecum. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which chicken gut microbiota affect host metabolic profiles and fat deposition.</p

    Chemical Micromotors Move Faster at Oil–Water Interfaces

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    Many real-world scenarios involve interfaces, particularly liquid–liquid interfaces, that can fundamentally alter the dynamics of colloids. This is poorly understood for chemically active colloids that release chemicals into their environment. We report here the surprising discovery that chemical micromotorscolloids that convert chemical fuels into self-propulsionmove significantly faster at an oil–water interface than on a glass substrate. Typical speed increases ranged from 3 to 6 times up to an order of magnitude and were observed for different types of chemical motors and interfaces made with different oils. Such speed increases are likely caused by faster chemical reactions at an oil–water interface than at a glass–water interface, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. Our results provide valuable insights into the complex interactions between chemical micromotors and their environments, which are important for applications in the human body or in the removal of organic pollutants from water. In addition, this study also suggests that chemical reactions occur faster at an oil–water interface and that micromotors can serve as a probe for such an effect

    Data_Sheet_1_Mendelian randomization analysis demonstrates the causal effects of IGF family members in diabetes.PDF

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    BackgroundObservational studies have consistently shown significant associations between the IGF family and metabolic diseases, including diabetes. However, these associations can be influenced by confounding factors and reverse causation. This study aimed to assess the causal relationship between the IGF family and diabetes using Mendelian randomization (MR).MethodsWe conducted a two-sample MR analysis to investigate the causal effects of the IGF family on diabetes. Instrumental variables for the IGF family and diabetes were derived from summary-level statistics obtained from genome-wide association studies. Horizontal pleiotropy was assessed using MR-Egger regression and the weighted median method. We applied the inverse-variance weighted method as part of the conventional MR analysis to evaluate the causal impact of the IGF family on diabetes risk. To test the robustness of the results, we also employed MR-Egger regression, the weighted median method, and a leave-one-out analysis.ResultsOur study revealed that IGF-1 causally increases the risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), while IGFBP-6, adiponectin and INSR decreases the risk (IGF-1, OR 1.02 [95% CI 1–1.03], p = 0.01; IGFBP-6, OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.87–0.98], p = 0.01; Adiponectin, OR 0.837 [95% CI 0.721–0.970], p = 0.018; INSR, OR 0.910 [95% CI 0.872–0.950], p = 1.52 × 10–5). Additionally, genetically lower levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-5, along with higher levels of IGFBP-7, were associated with an increased risk of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) (IGF-1, OR 0.981 [95% CI 0.963–0.999], p = 0.037; IGFBP-5, OR 0.882 [95% CI 0.778–0.999], p = 0.049; IGFBP-7, OR 1.103 [95% CI 1.008–1.206], p = 0.033).ConclusionIn summary, our investigation has unveiled causal relationships between specific IGF family members and T1D and T2D through MR analysis. Generally, the IGF family appears to reduce the risk of T1D, but it presents a more complex and controversial role in the context of T2D. These findings provide compelling evidence that T2D is intricately linked with developmental impairment. Our study results offer fresh insights into the pathogenesis and the significance of serum IGF family member concentrations in assessing diabetes risk.</p

    Schematic diagram of defect detection system.

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    Solenoid connectors play important role in electronic stability system design, with the features of small size, low cost, fast response time and high reliability. The main production process challenge for solenoid connectors is the accurate detection of defects, which is closely related to safe driving. Both faultless and defective products have similar color and shape at the defect location, making proper inspection challenging. To address these issues, we proposed a defect detection model called PO-YOLOv5 to achieve accurate defect detection for solenoid connectors. First, an additional prediction head was added to enable the model to acquire more semantic information to detect larger-scale defective features. Second, we introduced dynamic convolution to learn complementary connections between the four dimensions of the convolution kernel by utilizing its multidimensional attention mechanism. Replacing conventional convolution with dynamic convolution enhances the detection accuracy of the model and reduces the inference time. Finally, we validated PO-YOLOv5 versus the state-of-the-art object detection methods on the same solenoid connectors dataset. Experiments revealed that our proposed approach exhibited higher accuracy. The mAP (mean Average Precision) result of PO-YOLOv5 was found to be about 90.1%. Compared with the original YOLOv5, PO-YOLOv5 exhibited improved precision by about 3%.</div

    ODConv module.

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    Convolutional kernel space consists of the spatial kernel size, the input channel number, the output channel number and the convolutional kernel number.</p
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