358 research outputs found

    Contributions of photosynthetic organs to the seed yield of hybrid rice: The effects of gibberellin application examined by carbon isotope technology

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    The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Contributions of photosynthetic organs to the seed yield of hybrid rice: The effects of gibberellin application examined by carbon isotope technology. Seed Science and Technology, 46(3), (2018): 533-546, doi:10.15258/sst.2018.46.3.10.Changes in the structure and quality of a hybrid combination population have been observed after the application of gibberellins. Such changes would affect the accumulation and distribution of photosynthetic products, which would subsequently affect the yield during hybrid rice seed production. In this study, photosynthetic physiological characteristics and the distribution of photosynthetic products were evaluated in a field experiment. The transport of panicle photosynthetic products to grain was demonstrated using a 14C isotope tracer technique.The contribution ratios of the panicle and leaf to yield in the hybrid rice seed production were 32.3 and 42.1%, respectively. Through isotope tracing technology, it was determined that about 90% of the photosynthetic products of the panicle and 50% of those of the leaf were delivered to the panicle. During the filling period, the contribution of panicle to yield was concentrated in the early period (0–10 days after pollination), and the contribution of leaf to yield was more significant in the late period (10 days after pollination to maturity). These results suggest that the panicle makes an important photosynthetic contribution (equivalent to that of the flag leaf) during the process of grain filling, especially at 0–5 days after the heading stage.We are thankful to anonymous reviewers and editors for their helpful comments and suggestions. This research was part of the project for the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31271666), “12th 5-year plan” Agro-Scientific Research in the Public Interest (Grant No. 201303002) and the Earmarked Fund for China Agriculture Research System (Grant No. CARS-01-26)

    Unipolar resistance switching and abnormal reset behaviors in Pt/CuO/Pt and Cu/CuO/Pt structures

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    The effects of Pt and Cu top electrodes on resistance switching properties were investigated for CuO thin films with Pt/CuO/Pt and Cu/CuO/Pt sandwich structures. Typical unipolar resistance switching (URS) behaviors and two different kinds of resistance changes in the reset process were observed in both structures. When voltages were applied to the film, the low-resistance state (LRS) with relatively low resistance value (50 Ω), the resistance first decreased then increased to HRS, showing abnormal reset behavior. The former variation of LRS could be ascribed to the decrease in filament size induced by Joule heating, while the latter one could be ascribed to the growth of disconnected filaments induced by high electric fields. This study indicates that the switching modes and the abnormal reset behaviors in CuO thin films are not due to Pt and Cu top electrodes, but the intrinsic properties of CuO film

    BCR and its mutants, the reciprocal t(9;22)-associated ABL/BCR fusion proteins, differentially regulate the cytoskeleton and cell motility

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    BACKGROUND: The reciprocal (9;22) translocation fuses the bcr (breakpoint cluster region) gene on chromosome 22 to the abl (Abelson-leukemia-virus) gene on chromosome 9. Depending on the breakpoint on chromosome 22 (the Philadelphia chromosome – Ph+) the derivative 9+ encodes either the p40((ABL/BCR) )fusion transcript, detectable in about 65% patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia, or the p96((ABL/BCR) )fusion transcript, detectable in 100% of Ph+ acute lymphatic leukemia patients. The ABL/BCRs are N-terminally truncated BCR mutants. The fact that BCR contains Rho-GEF and Rac-GAP functions strongly suggest an important role in cytoskeleton modeling by regulating the activity of Rho-like GTPases, such as Rho, Rac and cdc42. We, therefore, compared the function of the ABL/BCR proteins with that of wild-type BCR. METHODS: We investigated the effects of BCR and ABL/BCRs i.) on the activation status of Rho, Rac and cdc42 in GTPase-activation assays; ii.) on the actin cytoskeleton by direct immunofluorescence; and iii) on cell motility by studying migration into a three-dimensional stroma spheroid model, adhesion on an endothelial cell layer under shear stress in a flow chamber model, and chemotaxis and endothelial transmigration in a transwell model with an SDF-1α gradient. RESULTS: Here we show that both ABL/BCRs lost fundamental functional features of BCR regarding the regulation of small Rho-like GTPases with negative consequences on cell motility, in particular on the capacity to adhere to endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Our data presented here describe for the first time an analysis of the biological function of the reciprocal t(9;22) ABL/BCR fusion proteins in comparison to their physiological counterpart BCR

    Large room-temperature magnetoresistance in van der Waals ferromagnet/semiconductor junctions

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    The magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is the core component in memory technologies, such as the magnetic random-access memory, magnetic sensors and programmable logic devices. In particular, MTJs based on two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures offer unprecedented opportunities for low power consumption and miniaturization of spintronic devices. However, their operation at room temperature remains a challenge. Here, we report a large tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of up to 85% at room temperature (T = 300 K) in vdW MTJs based on a thin (< 10 nm) semiconductor spacer WSe2 layer embedded between two Fe3GaTe2 electrodes with intrinsic above-room-temperature ferromagnetism. The TMR in the MTJ increases with decreasing temperature up to 164% at T = 10 K. The demonstration of TMR in ultra-thin MTJs at room-temperature opens a realistic and promising route for next-generation spintronic applications beyond the current state of the art

    Progress in the study of aging marker criteria in human populations

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    The use of human aging markers, which are physiological, biochemical and molecular indicators of structural or functional degeneration associated with aging, is the fundamental basis of individualized aging assessments. Identifying methods for selecting markers has become a primary and vital aspect of aging research. However, there is no clear consensus or uniform principle on the criteria for screening aging markers. Therefore, we combine previous research from our center and summarize the criteria for screening aging markers in previous population studies, which are discussed in three aspects: functional perspective, operational implementation perspective and methodological perspective. Finally, an evaluation framework has been established, and the criteria are categorized into three levels based on their importance, which can help assess the extent to which a candidate biomarker may be feasible, valid, and useful for a specific use context