9,561 research outputs found

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb‚ąí1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ¬Ī\pm 0.002 (stat) ¬Ī\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ¬Ī\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    CEPC Technical Design Report -- Accelerator

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    International audienceThe Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is a large scientific project initiated and hosted by China, fostered through extensive collaboration with international partners. The complex comprises four accelerators: a 30 GeV Linac, a 1.1 GeV Damping Ring, a Booster capable of achieving energies up to 180 GeV, and a Collider operating at varying energy modes (Z, W, H, and ttbar). The Linac and Damping Ring are situated on the surface, while the Booster and Collider are housed in a 100 km circumference underground tunnel, strategically accommodating future expansion with provisions for a Super Proton Proton Collider (SPPC). The CEPC primarily serves as a Higgs factory. In its baseline design with synchrotron radiation (SR) power of 30 MW per beam, it can achieve a luminosity of 5e34 /cm^2/s^1, resulting in an integrated luminosity of 13 /ab for two interaction points over a decade, producing 2.6 million Higgs bosons. Increasing the SR power to 50 MW per beam expands the CEPC's capability to generate 4.3 million Higgs bosons, facilitating precise measurements of Higgs coupling at sub-percent levels, exceeding the precision expected from the HL-LHC by an order of magnitude. This Technical Design Report (TDR) follows the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (Pre-CDR, 2015) and the Conceptual Design Report (CDR, 2018), comprehensively detailing the machine's layout and performance, physical design and analysis, technical systems design, R&D and prototyping efforts, and associated civil engineering aspects. Additionally, it includes a cost estimate and a preliminary construction timeline, establishing a framework for forthcoming engineering design phase and site selection procedures. Construction is anticipated to begin around 2027-2028, pending government approval, with an estimated duration of 8 years. The commencement of experiments could potentially initiate in the mid-2030s

    Image_9_A two-sample mendelian randomization analysis excludes causal relationships between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and kidney stones.tif

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    ObjectivesNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones in prior observational studies, However, the results are inconsistent, and the causality remains to be established. We aimed to investigate the potential causal relationship between NAFLD and kidney stones using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MethodsGenetic instruments were used as proxies for NAFLD. Summary-level data for the associations of exposure-associated SNPs with kidney stones were obtained from the UK Biobank study (6536 cases and 388,508 controls) and the FinnGen consortium (9713 cases and 366,693 non-cases). MR methods were conducted, including inverse variance weighted method (IVW), MR-Egger, weighted median, and MR-PRESSO. MR-Egger Regression Intercept and Cochran’s Q test were used to assess the directional pleiotropy and heterogeneity.ResultscALT-associated NAFLD did not exhibit an association with kidney stones in the Inverse variance weighted (IVW) methods, in both the FinnGen consortium (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 0.94-1.11, p = 0.632) and the UKBB study (OR: 1.000, 95%CI: 0.998-1.002, p = 0.852). The results were consistent in European ancestry (FinnGen OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.98-1.14, p = 0.144, UKBB OR: 1.000, 95%CI: 0.998-1.002, p = 0.859). IVW MR analysis also did not reveal a significant causal relationship between NAFLD and the risk of kidney stone for the other three NAFLD-related traits, including imaging-based, biopsy-confirmed NAFLD, and more stringent biopsy-confirmed NAFLD. The results remained consistent and robust in the sensitivity analysis.ConclusionsThe MR study did not provide sufficient evidence to support the causal associations of NAFLD with kidney stones.</p

    Image_1_A two-sample mendelian randomization analysis excludes causal relationships between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and kidney stones.tif

    No full text
    ObjectivesNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones in prior observational studies, However, the results are inconsistent, and the causality remains to be established. We aimed to investigate the potential causal relationship between NAFLD and kidney stones using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MethodsGenetic instruments were used as proxies for NAFLD. Summary-level data for the associations of exposure-associated SNPs with kidney stones were obtained from the UK Biobank study (6536 cases and 388,508 controls) and the FinnGen consortium (9713 cases and 366,693 non-cases). MR methods were conducted, including inverse variance weighted method (IVW), MR-Egger, weighted median, and MR-PRESSO. MR-Egger Regression Intercept and Cochran’s Q test were used to assess the directional pleiotropy and heterogeneity.ResultscALT-associated NAFLD did not exhibit an association with kidney stones in the Inverse variance weighted (IVW) methods, in both the FinnGen consortium (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 0.94-1.11, p = 0.632) and the UKBB study (OR: 1.000, 95%CI: 0.998-1.002, p = 0.852). The results were consistent in European ancestry (FinnGen OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.98-1.14, p = 0.144, UKBB OR: 1.000, 95%CI: 0.998-1.002, p = 0.859). IVW MR analysis also did not reveal a significant causal relationship between NAFLD and the risk of kidney stone for the other three NAFLD-related traits, including imaging-based, biopsy-confirmed NAFLD, and more stringent biopsy-confirmed NAFLD. The results remained consistent and robust in the sensitivity analysis.ConclusionsThe MR study did not provide sufficient evidence to support the causal associations of NAFLD with kidney stones.</p

    Image_5_A two-sample mendelian randomization analysis excludes causal relationships between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and kidney stones.tif

    No full text
    ObjectivesNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones in prior observational studies, However, the results are inconsistent, and the causality remains to be established. We aimed to investigate the potential causal relationship between NAFLD and kidney stones using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MethodsGenetic instruments were used as proxies for NAFLD. Summary-level data for the associations of exposure-associated SNPs with kidney stones were obtained from the UK Biobank study (6536 cases and 388,508 controls) and the FinnGen consortium (9713 cases and 366,693 non-cases). MR methods were conducted, including inverse variance weighted method (IVW), MR-Egger, weighted median, and MR-PRESSO. MR-Egger Regression Intercept and Cochran’s Q test were used to assess the directional pleiotropy and heterogeneity.ResultscALT-associated NAFLD did not exhibit an association with kidney stones in the Inverse variance weighted (IVW) methods, in both the FinnGen consortium (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 0.94-1.11, p = 0.632) and the UKBB study (OR: 1.000, 95%CI: 0.998-1.002, p = 0.852). The results were consistent in European ancestry (FinnGen OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.98-1.14, p = 0.144, UKBB OR: 1.000, 95%CI: 0.998-1.002, p = 0.859). IVW MR analysis also did not reveal a significant causal relationship between NAFLD and the risk of kidney stone for the other three NAFLD-related traits, including imaging-based, biopsy-confirmed NAFLD, and more stringent biopsy-confirmed NAFLD. The results remained consistent and robust in the sensitivity analysis.ConclusionsThe MR study did not provide sufficient evidence to support the causal associations of NAFLD with kidney stones.</p

    A portrait of the Higgs boson by the CMS experiment ten years after the discovery