683 research outputs found

    Photon regions, shadow observables and constraints from M87* of a charged rotating black hole

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    Inspired by the observations of supermassive black hole M87* in \emph{Event Horizon Telescope }(EHT) experiment, a remarkable surge in black hole physics is to use the black hole shadow's observables to distinguish general relativity (GR) and modified theories of gravity (MoG), which could also help to disclose the astrophysical nature of the center black hole in EHT observation. In this paper, we shall extensively carry out the study of a charged rotating black hole in conformal gravity, in which the term related with the charge has different falloffs from the usual Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole. We investigate the spacetime properties including the horizons, ergospheres and the photon regions; afterward, we show the boundary of black hole shadow and investigate its characterized observables. The features closely depend on the spin and charge parameters, which are compared with those in Kerr and KN black holes. Then presupposing the M87* a charged rotating black hole in conformal gravity, we also constrain the black hole parameters via the observation constraints from EHT experiment. We find that the constraints on the inferred circularity deviation, ΔC0.1\Delta C \lesssim 0.1, and on the shadow axial ratio, 1<Dx4/31< D_x \lesssim 4/3, for the M87* black hole are satisfied for the entire parameter space of the charged rotating black hole in conformal gravity. However, the shadow angular diameter θd=42±3μas\theta_d = 42 \pm 3 \mu as will give upper bound on the parameter space. Our findings indicate that the current charged rotating black hole in conformal gravity could be a candidate for astrophysical black holes. Moreover, the EHT observation on the axial ratio DxD_x may help us to distinguish Kerr black hole and the current charged rotating black hole in conformal gravity in some parameter space.Comment: references adde

    Low-depth Hamiltonian Simulation by Adaptive Product Formula

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    Various Hamiltonian simulation algorithms have been proposed to efficiently study the dynamics of quantum systems using a universal quantum computer. However, existing algorithms generally approximate the entire time evolution operators, which may need a deep quantum circuit that are beyond the capability of near-term noisy quantum devices. Here, focusing on the time evolution of a fixed input quantum state, we propose an adaptive approach to construct a low-depth time evolution circuit. By introducing a measurable quantifier that describes the simulation error, we use an adaptive strategy to learn the shallow quantum circuit that minimizes the simulation error. We numerically test the adaptive method with the electronic Hamiltonians of H2O\mathrm{H_2O} and H4\mathrm{H_4} molecules, and the transverse field ising model with random coefficients. Compared to the first-order Suzuki-Trotter product formula, our method can significantly reduce the circuit depth (specifically the number of two-qubit gates) by around two orders while maintaining the simulation accuracy. We show applications of the method in simulating many-body dynamics and solving energy spectra with the quantum Krylov algorithm. Our work sheds light on practical Hamiltonian simulation with noisy-intermediate-scale-quantum devices.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure

    Dirac fermions with plaquette interactions. III. SU(N) phase diagram with Gross-Neveu criticality and first-order phase transition

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    Inspired by our recent works[1, 2] of SU(2) and SU(4) Dirac fermions subjected to plaquette interactions on square lattice, here we extend the large-scale quantum Monte Carlo investigations to the phase digram of correlated Dirac fermions with SU(6) and SU(8) symmetries subjected to the plaquette interaction on the same lattice. From SU(2) to SU(8), the rich phase diagram exhibits a plethora of emerging quantum phases such as the Dirac semimetal, the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator, valence bond solid (VBS) and the Dirac spin liquid and phase transitions including the Gross-Neveu chiral transitions with emergent continuous symmetry, the deconfined quantum criticality and the first order transition between interaction-driven columnar VBS and plaquette VBS. These rich phenomena coming from the simple-looking lattice models, firmly convey the message that the interplay between the SU(N)SU(N) Dirac fermions -- with enhanced internal symmetries -- and extended plaquette interactions -- beyond the on-site Hubbard type -- is the new playground to synthesise novel highly entangled quantum matter both at the model level and with experimental feasibilities.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figure

    Dirac fermions with plaquette interactions. I. SU(2) phase diagram with Gross-Neveu and deconfined quantum criticalities

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    We investigate the ground state phase diagram of an extended Hubbard model with π\pi-flux hopping term at half-filling on a square lattice, with unbiased large-scale auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo simulations. As a function of interaction strength, there emerges an intermediate phase which realizes two interaction-driven quantum critical points, with the first between the Dirac semimetal and an insulating phase of weak valence bond solid (VBS) order, and the second separating the VBS order and an antiferromagnetic insulating phase. These intriguing quantum critical points are respectively bestowed with Gross-Neveu and deconfined quantum criticalities, and the critical exponents ηVBS=0.6(1)\eta_\text{VBS}=0.6(1) and ηAF=0.58(3)\eta_\text{AF}=0.58(3) at deconfined quantum critical point satisfy the CFT Bootstrap bound. We also investigate the dynamical properties of the spin excitation and find the spin gap open near the first transition and close at the second. The relevance of our findings in realizing deconfined quantum criticality in fermion systems and the implication to lattice models with further extended interactions such as those in quantum Moir\'e systems, are discussed.Comment: 6+2 pages, 5+2 figure

    Caution on Gross-Neveu criticality with a single Dirac cone: Violation of locality and its consequence of unexpected finite-temperature transition

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    Lately there are many SLAC fermion investigations on the (2+1)D Gross-Neveu criticality of a single Dirac cone [1,2]. While the SLAC fermion construction indeed gives rise to the linear energy-momentum relation for all lattice momenta at the non-interacting limit, the long-range hopping and its consequent violation of locality on the Gross-Neveu quantum critical point (GN-QCP) -- which a priori requires short-range interaction -- has not been verified. Here we show, by means of large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that the interaction-driven antiferromagnetic insulator in this case is fundamentally different from that on a purely local π\pi-flux Hubbard model on the square lattice. In particular, we find the antiferromagnetic long-range order in the SLAC fermion model has a finite temperature continuous phase transition, which violates the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and smoothly connects to the previously determined GN-QCP. The magnetic excitations inside the antiferromagnetic insulator are gapped without Goldstone mode, even though the state spontaneously breaks continuous SU(2)SU(2) symmetry. These unusual results proclaim caution on the interpretation of the quantum phase transition in SLAC fermion model as that of GN-QCP with short-range interaction

    Postweaning Isolation Rearing Alters the Adult Social, Sexual Preference and Mating Behaviors of Male CD-1 Mice

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    Objective: No study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of postweaning isolation on the social and sexual behaviors of a certain strain of rodents in ethology. The present study aims to explore how and to what extent isolation rearing after postweaning affects the social and sexual behaviors of male CD-1 mice in adulthood systematically.Methods: Male CD-1 mice were randomly assigned to two groups: isolation reared (IS, one mouse per cage, n = 30) and group housed (GH, five mice per cage, n = 15). The mice underwent isolation rearing from postnatal day 23 to day 93. Then, social affiliation, recognition and memory were measured through selection task experiments. Social interaction under a home cage and novel environment were measured via resident–intruder and social interaction test, respectively. Furthermore, sexual preference, homosexual and heterosexual behaviors were measured.Results: Our study found that postweaning isolation increased the social affiliation for conspecifics (p = 0.001), reduced social recognition (p = 0.042) and impaired social memory. As for social interaction, isolated mice showed a remarkably increased aggression toward the intruder male in a home cage or novelty environment. For instance, isolated mice presented a short attack latency (p &lt; 0.001), high attack frequency (p &lt; 0.001) and long attack duration (p &lt; 0.001). In addition, isolated mice exhibited further social avoidance. Contrastingly, isolated mice displayed a reduced sexual preference for female (IS: 61.47 ± 13.80%, GH: 70.33 ± 10.06%, p = 0.038). As for heterosexual behavior, isolated mice have a short mating duration (p = 0.002), long mounting latency (p = 0.002), and long intromission latency (p = 0.015). However, no association was observed between postweaning isolation and homosexual behavior in male CD-1 mouse.Conclusion: Postweaning isolation increased the social affiliation, impaired the social cognition and considerably increased the aggression in social interaction of adult male CD-1 mice. Postweaning isolation induced a decreased sexual preference for female in adulthood. Postweaning isolation extended the latency to mate, thereby reducing mating behavior. No association was observed between isolation and homosexual behavior

    Traditional Wooden Buildings in China

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    Chinese ancient architecture, with its long history, unique systematic features and wide-spread employment as well as its abundant heritages, is a valuable legacy of the whole world. Due to the particularity of the material and structure of Chinese ancient architecture, relatively research results are mostly published in Chinese, which limits international communication. On account of the studies carried out in Nanjing Forestry University and many other universities and teams, this chapter emphatically introduces the development, structural evolution and preservation of traditional Chinese wooden structure; research status focuses on material properties, decay pattern, anti-seismic performance and corresponding conservation and reinforcement technologies of the main load-bearing members in traditional Chinese wooden structure

    Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies of Nickel-Rich NMC-Based Lithium-Ion Batteries

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    Abstract The demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high mass-specific capacities, high rate capabilities and long-term cyclabilities is driving the research and development of LIBs with nickel-rich NMC (LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2, x0.5x \geqslant 0.5x⩾0.5) cathodes and graphite (LixC6) anodes. Based on this, this review will summarize recently reported and widely recognized studies of the degradation mechanisms of Ni-rich NMC cathodes and graphite anodes. And with a broad collection of proposed mechanisms on both atomic and micrometer scales, this review can supplement previous degradation studies of Ni-rich NMC batteries. In addition, this review will categorize advanced mitigation strategies for both electrodes based on different modifications in which Ni-rich NMC cathode improvement strategies involve dopants, gradient layers, surface coatings, carbon matrixes and advanced synthesis methods, whereas graphite anode improvement strategies involve surface coatings, charge/discharge protocols and electrolyte volume estimations. Electrolyte components that can facilitate the stabilization of anodic solid electrolyte interfaces are also reviewed, and trade-offs between modification techniques as well as controversies are discussed for a deeper understanding of the mitigation strategies of Ni-rich NMC/graphite LIBs. Furthermore, this review will present various physical and electrochemical diagnostic tools that are vital in the elucidation of degradation mechanisms during operation to supplement future degradation studies. Finally, this review will summarize current research focuses and propose future research directions. Graphic Abstract The demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high mass specific capacities, high rate capabilities and longterm cyclabilities is driving the research and development of LIBs with nickel-rich NMC (LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2, x ≥ 0.5) cathodes and graphite (LixC6) anodes. Based on this, this review will summarize recently reported and widely recognized studies of the degradation mechanisms of Ni-rich NMC cathodes and graphite anodes. And with a broad collection of proposed mechanisms on both atomic and micrometer scales, this review can supplement previous degradation studies of Ni-rich NMC batteries. In addition, this review will categorize advanced mitigation strategies for both electrodes based on different modifications in which Ni-rich NMC cathode improvement strategies involve dopants, gradient layers, surface coatings, carbon matrixes and advanced synthesis methods, whereas graphite anode improvement strategies involve surface coatings, charge/discharge protocols and electrolyte volume estimations. Electrolyte components that can facilitate the stabilization of anodic solid-electrolyte interfaces (SEIs) are also reviewed and tradeoffs between modification techniques as well as controversies are discussed for a deeper understanding of the mitigation strategies of Ni-rich NMC/graphite LIBs. Furthermore, this review will present various physical and electrochemical diagnostic tools that are vital in the elucidation of degradation mechanisms during operation to supplement future degradation studies. Finally, this review will summarize current research focuses and propose future research directions
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