585 research outputs found

    Functional evaluation of pollutant transformation in sediment from combined sewer system

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    © 2018 Elsevier Ltd In this study, a pilot combined sewer system was constructed to characterize the pollutant transformation in sewer sediment. The results showed that particulate contaminants deposited from sewage could be transformed into dissolved matter by distinct pollutant transformation pathways. Although the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was varied from −80 mV to −340 mV in different region of the sediment, the fermentation was the dominant process in all regions of the sediment, which induced hydrolysis and decomposition of particulate contaminants. As a result, the accumulation of dissolved organic matter and the variation of ORP values along the sediment depth led to the depth-dependent reproduction characteristics of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were existed in the middle and deep layer of the sediment respectively. However, the diversity of nitrifying and polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria was low in sewer sediment and those microbial communities showed a non-significant correlation with nitrogen and phosphorus contaminants, which indicated that the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus contaminants was mainly caused by physical deposition process. Thus, this study proposed a promising pathway to evaluate pollutant transformation and can help provide theoretical foundation for urban sewer improvement

    Current status of urban wastewater treatment plants in China

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    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the perspective of treatment technologies, pollutant removals, operating load and effluent discharge standards. By the end of 2013, 3508 WWTPs have been built in 31 provinces and cities in China with a total treatment capacity of 1.48 × 108 m3/d. The uneven population distribution between China's east and west regions has resulted in notably different economic development outcomes. The technologies mostly used in WWTPs are AAO and oxidation ditch, which account for over 50% of the existing WWTPs. According to statistics, the efficiencies of COD and NH3-N removal are good in 656 WWTPs in 70 cities. The overall average COD removal is over 88% with few regional differences. The average removal efficiency of NH3-N is up to 80%. Large differences exist between the operating loads applied in different WWTPs. The average operating loading rate is approximately 83%, and 52% of WWTPs operate at loadings of <80%, treating up to 40% of the wastewater generated. The implementation of discharge standards has been low. Approximately 28% of WWTPs that achieved the Grade I-A Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002) were constructed after 2010. The sludge treatment and recycling rates are only 25%, and approximately 15% of wastewater is inefficiently treated. Approximately 60% of WWTPs have capacities of 1 × 104 m3/d-5 × 104 m3/d. Relatively high energy consumption is required for small-scale processing, and the utilization rate of recycled wastewater is low. The challenges of WWTPs are discussed with the aim of developing rational criteria and appropriate technologies for water recycling. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures are provided

    Robust Delay-Dependent Load Frequency Control of Wind Power System Based on a Novel Reconstructed Model

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    IEEE This article presents a novel reconstructed model for the delayed load frequency control (LFC) schemes considering wind power, which aims to improve the computational efficiency for PID controllers while retaining their dynamic performance. Via fully exploiting system states influenced by time delays directly, this novel reconstructed method is proposed with a controller isolated. Hence, when the PID controllers are unknown, the stability criterion based on this model can resolve controller gains with less time consumed. For given PID gains, this model can be employed to establish criteria for stability analysis, which can realize the tradeoff between the calculation accuracy and efficiency. The case study is first based on a two-area traditional LFC system to validate the merits of a novel reconstructed model, including accurately estimating the influence of time delay on system frequency stability with increased computational capability. Then, under traditional and deregulated environments, case studies are carried out on the two-area and three-area schemes, respectively. Through the novel reconstructed model, the efficiency of obtaining controller parameters is highly improved while their robustness against the random wind power, tie-line power changes, inertial reductions, and time delays remains almost unchanged

    Synthesis, structure, and magnetism in the ferromagnet La_{3}MnAs_{5}: Well-separated spin chains coupled via itinerant electrons

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    In this work, we systematically report the synthesis, structure, and magnetism of a compound of filled anti-Mn3Si5 type La3MnAs5. It crystallizes in a hexagonal structure with the space group of P63/mcm (193). The structure consists of face-sharing MnAs6 octahedral chains along the c axis, which are well separated by a large distance of 8.9913 Å, demonstrating a strong one-dimensional (1D) structural character. Physical property measurements indicate that La3MnAs5 is a ferromagnetic metal with TC ∼ 112 K. Due to the short-range intrachain spin coupling, the susceptibility deviates from the Curie-Weiss behavior in a wide temperature window and the magnetic entropy corresponding to the ferromagnetic transition is significantly lower than that expected from the fully saturated state. The magnetic critical behavior studies show that La3MnAs5 can be described by the three-dimensional Heisenberg model. The orbital hybridization between the 1D MnAs6 chain and intermediate La atom near the Fermi level reveals that the itinerant electrons play a key role in transmitting spin interaction among the MnAs6 spin chains. Our results indicate that La3MnAs5 is a rare ferromagnetic metal with well-separated spin chains, which provides a good opportunity to study the mechanism of interchain spin coupling via itinerant electrons

    Role of Temperature in the Growth of Silver Nanoparticles Through a Synergetic Reduction Approach

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    This study presents the role of reaction temperature in the formation and growth of silver nanoparticles through a synergetic reduction approach using two or three reducing agents simultaneously. By this approach, the shape-/size-controlled silver nanoparticles (plates and spheres) can be generated under mild conditions. It was found that the reaction temperature could play a key role in particle growth and shape/size control, especially for silver nanoplates. These nanoplates could exhibit an intensive surface plasmon resonance in the wavelength range of 700–1,400 nm in the UV–vis spectrum depending upon their shapes and sizes, which make them useful for optical applications, such as optical probes, ionic sensing, and biochemical sensors. A detailed analysis conducted in this study clearly shows that the reaction temperature can greatly influence reaction rate, and hence the particle characteristics. The findings would be useful for optimization of experimental parameters for shape-controlled synthesis of other metallic nanoparticles (e.g., Au, Cu, Pt, and Pd) with desirable functional properties

    Ultrathin 2 nm gold as ideal impedance-matched absorber for infrared light

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    Thermal detectors are a cornerstone of infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) technology due to their broad spectral range. These detectors call for suitable broad spectral absorbers with minimalthermal mass. Often this is realized by plasmonic absorbers, which ensure a high absorptivity butonly for a narrow spectral band. Alternativly, a common approach is based on impedance-matching the sheet resistance of a thin metallic film to half the free-space impedance. Thereby, it is possible to achieve a wavelength-independent absorptivity of up to 50 %, depending on the dielectric properties of the underlying substrate. However, existing absorber films typicallyrequire a thickness of the order of tens of nanometers, such as titanium nitride (14 nm), whichcan significantly deteriorate the response of a thermal transducers. Here, we present the application of ultrathin gold (2 nm) on top of a 1.2 nm copper oxide seed layer as an effective IR absorber. An almost wavelength-independent and long-time stable absorptivity of 47(3) %, ranging from 2 μ\mum to 20 μ\mum, could be obtained and is further discussed. The presented gold thin-film represents analmost ideal impedance-matched IR absorber that allows a significant improvement of state-of-the-art thermal detector technology

    Transformation and utilization of slowly biodegradable organic matters in biological sewage treatment of anaerobic anoxic oxic systems

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    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. This study examined the distribution of carbon sources in two anaerobic anoxic oxic (AAO) sewage treatment plants in Xi'an and investigated the transformation characteristics and utilization potential of slowly biodegradable organic matters (SBOM). Results indicated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, SBOM could be transformed at a rate of 65% in 8 h into more readily biologically utilizable substrates such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), polysaccharides and proteins. Additionally, non-biodegradable humus-type substances which are difficult to biodegrade and readily accumulate, were also generated. These products could be further hydrolyzed to aldehyde and ketone compounds and then transformed into substances with significant oxygen-containing functional groups and utilized subsequently. The molecular weights of proteinoid substances had a wide distribution and tended to decrease over time. Long hours of microbial reaction increased the proportion of micromolecular substances. This particular increase generated significant bioavailability, which can greatly improve the efficiency of nitrogen removal
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