3,994 research outputs found

    Continuum Theory of Polymer Crystallization

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    We present a kinetic model of crystal growth of polymers of finite molecular weight. Experiments help to classify polymer crystallization broadly into two kinetic regimes. One is observed in melts or in high molar mass polymer solutions and is dominated by nucleation control with Gexp(1/TΔT)G \sim \exp(1/T \Delta T), where GG is the growth rate and ΔT\Delta T is the super-cooling. The other is observed in low molar mass solutions (as well as for small molecules) and is diffusion controlled with GΔTG \sim \Delta T, for small ΔT\Delta T. Our model unifies these two regimes in a single formalism. The model accounts for the accumulation of polymer chains near the growth front and invokes an entropic barrier theory to recover both limits of nucleation and diffusion control. The basic theory applies to both melts and solutions, and we numerically calculate the growth details of a single crystal in a dilute solution. The effects of molecular weight and concentration are also determined considering conventional polymer dynamics. Our theory shows that entropic considerations, in addition to the traditional energetic arguments, can capture general trends of a vast range of phenomenology. Unifying ideas on crystallization from small molecules and from flexible polymer chains emerge from our theory.Comment: 37 double-spaced pages including 8 figures, submitted to the Journal of Chemical Physic

    Cooling Techniques for Trapped Ions

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    This book chapter gives an introduction to, and an overview of, methods for cooling trapped ions. The main addressees are researchers entering the field. It is not intended as a comprehensive survey and historical account of the extensive literature on this topic. We present the physical ideas behind several cooling schemes, outline their mathematical description, and point to relevant literature useful for a more in-depth study of this topic.Comment: Part of the Proceedings of the Les Houches Winter School on the Physics with Trapped Charged Particles held in January 2012. References updated in mid 201

    Error-resistant Single Qubit Gates with Trapped Ions

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    Coherent operations constitutive for the implementation of single and multi-qubit quantum gates with trapped ions are demonstrated that are robust against variations in experimental parameters and intrinsically indeterministic system parameters. In particular, pulses developed using optimal control theory are demonstrated for the first time with trapped ions. Their performance as a function of error parameters is systematically investigated and compared to composite pulses.Comment: 5 pages 5 figure

    Seeding of supercooled polyethylene with extended chain crystals

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    Seeding of supercooled polyethylene with extended chain crystal

    Measuring entanglement in condensed matter systems

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    We show how entanglement may be quantified in spin and cold atom many-body systems using standard experimental techniques only. The scheme requires no assumptions on the state in the laboratory and a lower bound to the entanglement can be read off directly from the scattering cross section of Neutrons deflected from solid state samples or the time-of-flight distribution of cold atoms in optical lattices, respectively. This removes a major obstacle which so far has prevented the direct and quantitative experimental study of genuine quantum correlations in many-body systems: The need for a full characterization of the state to quantify the entanglement contained in it. Instead, the scheme presented here relies solely on global measurements that are routinely performed and is versatile enough to accommodate systems and measurements different from the ones we exemplify in this work.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figure

    Enhancement of laser cooling by the use of magnetic gradients

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    We present a laser cooling scheme for trapped ions and atoms using a combination of laser couplings and a magnetic gradient field. In a Schrieffer-Wolff transformed picture, this setup cancels the carrier and blue sideband terms completely resulting in an improved cooling behaviour compared to standard cooling schemes (e.g. sideband cooling) and allowing cooling to the vibrational ground state. A condition for optimal cooling rates is presented and the cooling behaviour for different Lamb-Dicke parameters and spontaneous decay rates is discussed. Cooling rates of one order of magnitude less than the trapping frequency are achieved using the new cooling method. Furthermore the scheme turns out to be robust under deviations from the optimal parameters and moreover provides good cooling rates also in the multi particle case.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figure

    Current induced local spin polarization due to the spin-orbit coupling in a two dimensional narrow strip

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    The current induced local spin polarization due to weak Rashba spin-orbit coupling in narrow strip is studied. In the presence of longitudinal charge current, local spin polarizations appear in the sample. The spin polarization perpendicular to the plane has opposite sign near the two edges. The in-plane spin polarization in the direction perpendicular to the sample edges also appears, but does not change sign across the sample. From our scaling analysis based on increasing the strip width, the out-of-plane spin polarization is important mainly in a system of mesoscopic size, and thus appears not to be associated with the spin-Hall effect in bulk samples.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure
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