125 research outputs found

    F-actin binds to the cytoplasmic surface of ponticulin, a 17-kD integral glycoprotein from Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes

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    F-actin affinity chromatography and immunological techniques are used to identify actin-binding proteins in purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes. A 17-kD integral glycoprotein (gp17) consistently elutes from F-actin columns as the major actin-binding protein under a variety of experimental conditions. The actin-binding activity of gp17 is identical to that of intact plasma membranes: it resists extraction with 0.1 N NaOH, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT); it is sensitive to ionic conditions; it is stable over a wide range of pH; and it is eliminated by proteolysis, denaturation with heat, or treatment with DTT and N-ethylmaleimide. gp17 may be responsible for much of the actin-binding activity of plasma membranes since monovalent antibody fragments (Fab) directed primarily against gp17 inhibit actin-membrane binding by 96% in sedimentation assays. In contrast, Fab directed against cell surface determinants inhibit binding by only 0-10%. The actin-binding site of gp17 appears to be located on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane since Fab against this protein continue to inhibit 96% of actin-membrane binding even after extensive adsorption against cell surfaces. gp17 is abundant in the plasma membrane, constituting 0.4-1.0% of the total membrane protein. A transmembrane orientation of gp17 is suggested since, in addition to the cytoplasmic localization of the actin-binding site, extracellular determinants of gp17 are identified. gp17 is surface-labeled by sulfo-N-hydroxy-succinimido-biotin, a reagent that cannot penetrate the cell membrane. Also, gp17 is glycosylated since it is specifically bound by the lectin, concanavalin A. We propose that gp17 is a major actin-binding protein that is important for connecting the plasma membrane to the underlying microfilament network. Therefore, we have named this protein ponticulin from the Latin word, ponticulus, which means small bridge

    Smy2p Participates in COPII Vesicle Formation Through the Interaction with Sec23p/Sec24p Subcomplex

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    The coat protein complex II (COPII) is essential for vesicle formation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is composed of two heterodimeric subcomplexes, Sec23p/Sec24p and Sec13p/Sec31p, and the small guanosine triphosphatase Sar1p. In an effort to identify novel factors that may participate in COPII vesicle formation, we isolated SMY2, a yeast gene encoding a protein of unknown function, as a multicopy suppressor of the temperature-sensitive sec24-20 mutant. We found that even a low-copy expression of SMY2 was sufficient for the suppression of the sec24-20 phenotypes, and the chromosomal deletion of SMY2 led to a severe growth defect in the sec24-20 background. In addition, SMY2 exhibited genetic interactions with several other genes involved in the ER-to-Golgi transport. Subcellular fractionation analysis showed that Smy2p was a peripheral membrane protein fractionating together with COPII components. However, Smy2p was not loaded onto COPII vesicles generated in vitro. Interestingly, coimmunoprecipitation between Smy2p and the Sec23p/Sec24p subcomplex was specifically observed in sec23-1 and sec24-20 backgrounds, suggesting that this interaction was a prerequisite for the suppression of the sec24-20 phenotypes by overexpression of SMY2. We propose that Smy2p is located on the surface of the ER and facilitates COPII vesicle formation through the interaction with Sec23p/Sec24p subcomplex

    The yeast P5 type ATPase, Spf1, regulates manganese transport into the endoplasmic reticulum

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    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, multifunctional and essential organelle. Despite intense research, the function of more than a third of ER proteins remains unknown even in the well-studied model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such protein is Spf1, which is a highly conserved, ER localized, putative P-type ATPase. Deletion of SPF1 causes a wide variety of phenotypes including severe ER stress suggesting that this protein is essential for the normal function of the ER. The closest homologue of Spf1 is the vacuolar P-type ATPase Ypk9 that influences Mn2+ homeostasis. However in vitro reconstitution assays with Spf1 have not yielded insight into its transport specificity. Here we took an in vivo approach to detect the direct and indirect effects of deleting SPF1. We found a specific reduction in the luminal concentration of Mn2+ in ∆spf1 cells and an increase following it’s overexpression. In agreement with the observed loss of luminal Mn2+ we could observe concurrent reduction in many Mn2+-related process in the ER lumen. Conversely, cytosolic Mn2+-dependent processes were increased. Together, these data support a role for Spf1p in Mn2+ transport in the cell. We also demonstrate that the human sequence homologue, ATP13A1, is a functionally conserved orthologue. Since ATP13A1 is highly expressed in developing neuronal tissues and in the brain, this should help in the study of Mn2+-dependent neurological disorders

    Sec34p, a Protein Required for Vesicle Tethering to the Yeast Golgi Apparatus, Is in a Complex with Sec35p

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    A screen for mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretory pathway components previously yielded sec34, a mutant that accumulates numerous vesicles and fails to transport proteins from the ER to the Golgi complex at the restrictive temperature (Wuestehube, L.J., R. Duden, A. Eun, S. Hamamoto, P. Korn, R. Ram, and R. Schekman. 1996. Genetics. 142:393–406). We find that SEC34 encodes a novel protein of 93-kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec34-2 is suppressed by the rab GTPase Ypt1p that functions early in the secretory pathway, or by the dominant form of the ER to Golgi complex target-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor)–associated protein Sly1p, Sly1-20p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle tethering factor Uso1p or the vesicle-SNAREs Sec22p, Bet1p, or Ykt6p. This genetic suppression profile is similar to that of sec35-1, a mutant allele of a gene encoding an ER to Golgi vesicle tethering factor and, like Sec35p, Sec34p is required in vitro for vesicle tethering. sec34-2 and sec35-1 display a synthetic lethal interaction, a genetic result explained by the finding that Sec34p and Sec35p can interact by two-hybrid analysis. Fractionation of yeast cytosol indicates that Sec34p and Sec35p exist in an ∼750-kD protein complex. Finally, we describe RUD3, a novel gene identified through a genetic screen for multicopy suppressors of a mutation in USO1, which suppresses the sec34-2 mutation as well

    Coupled ER to Golgi Transport Reconstituted with Purified Cytosolic Proteins

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    A cell-free vesicle fusion assay that reproduces a subreaction in transport of pro-α-factor from the ER to the Golgi complex has been used to fractionate yeast cytosol. Purified Sec18p, Uso1p, and LMA1 in the presence of ATP and GTP satisfies the requirement for cytosol in fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes. Although these purified factors are sufficient for vesicle docking and fusion, overall ER to Golgi transport in yeast semi-intact cells depends on COPII proteins (components of a membrane coat that drive vesicle budding from the ER). Thus, membrane fusion is coupled to vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport even in the presence of saturating levels of purified fusion factors. Manipulation of the semi-intact cell assay is used to distinguish freely diffusible ER- derived vesicles containing pro-α-factor from docked vesicles and from fused vesicles. Uso1p mediates vesicle docking and produces a dilution resistant intermediate. Sec18p and LMA1 are not required for the docking phase, but are required for efficient fusion of ER- derived vesicles with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, elevated levels of Sec23p complex (a subunit of the COPII coat) prevent vesicle fusion in a reversible manner, but do not interfere with vesicle docking. Ordering experiments using the dilution resistant intermediate and reversible Sec23p complex inhibition indicate Sec18p action is required before LMA1 function

    Sec35p, a Novel Peripheral Membrane Protein, Is Required for ER to Golgi Vesicle Docking

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    SEC35 was identified in a novel screen for temperature-sensitive mutants in the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wuestehube et al., 1996. Genetics. 142:393–406). At the restrictive temperature, the sec35-1 strain exhibits a transport block between the ER and the Golgi apparatus and accumulates numerous vesicles. SEC35 encodes a novel cytosolic protein of 32 kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec35-1 is efficiently suppressed by YPT1, which encodes the rab-like GTPase required early in the secretory pathway, or by SLY1-20, which encodes a dominant form of the ER to Golgi target -SNARE–associated protein Sly1p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle-SNAREs SEC22, BET1, or YKT6. The cold-sensitive lethality that results from deleting SEC35 is suppressed by YPT1 or SLY1-20. These genetic relationships suggest that Sec35p acts upstream of, or in conjunction with, Ypt1p and Sly1p as was previously found for Uso1p. Using a cell-free assay that measures distinct steps in vesicle transport from the ER to the Golgi, we find Sec35p is required for a vesicle docking stage catalyzed by Uso1p. These genetic and biochemical results suggest Sec35p acts with Uso1p to dock ER-derived vesicles to the Golgi complex

    Characterization of Yeast Extracellular Vesicles: Evidence for the Participation of Different Pathways of Cellular Traffic in Vesicle Biogenesis

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    Background: Extracellular vesicles in yeast cells are involved in the molecular traffic across the cell wall. In yeast pathogens, these vesicles have been implicated in the transport of proteins, lipids, polysaccharide and pigments to the extracellular space. Cellular pathways required for the biogenesis of yeast extracellular vesicles are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: We characterized extracellular vesicle production in wild type (WT) and mutant strains of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using transmission electron microscopy in combination with light scattering analysis, lipid extraction and proteomics. WT cells and mutants with defective expression of Sec4p, a secretory vesicleassociated Rab GTPase essential for Golgi-derived exocytosis, or Snf7p, which is involved in multivesicular body (MVB) formation, were analyzed in parallel. Bilayered vesicles with diameters at the 100–300 nm range were found in extracellular fractions from yeast cultures. Proteomic analysis of vesicular fractions from the cells aforementioned and additional mutants with defects in conventional secretion pathways (sec1-1, fusion of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles with the plasm
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