421 research outputs found

    The Legal Protection Path of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Ethnic Minorities Beyond the Framework of Intellectual Property Rights

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    For the legal protection of intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities, China has basically formed a legal protection mode combining international legal protection with domestic legal protection, and combining public law protection with private law protection. However, the protection of intangible cultural heritage by the intellectual property system is concentrated in two aspects: creative products (works) based on traditional knowledge and traditional skills that have not yet been disclosed and can be applied in industry. The protection of intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities is facing the dilemma of limited compatibility of intellectual property rights. Therefore, we should clarify the protection ideas of intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities, go beyond the framework of intellectual property rights, and form a diversified protection path of intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities

    Review and Reflection: The Perfection of the Legal Protection System for Representative Inheritors of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Ethnic Minorities

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    The protection of representative inheritors of intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities is the basis of inheriting intangible cultural heritage. By combing the provisions on the representative inheritors of intangible cultural heritage in China’s existing legal norms, combining with practical problems, examining the shortcomings of existing provisions, this paper puts forward optimization ideas from three aspects: improving the identification mechanism of inheritors, stipulating the rights of inheritors clearly, and strengthening the protection of the rights of inheritors, so as to realize the research goal of protecting the representative inheritors of intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities

    Is the forward bias economically small? Evidence from European rates.

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    For the purpose of testing uncovered interest parity (UIP), rates of European currencies against the DEM offer a distinct advantage: ERM membership or informal ERM association induces statistically significant mean-reversion in weekly rates. Thus, unlike for freely floating rates, there is an expectations signal that has nontrivial variation and is sufficiently traceable for research purposes. When running the standard regression tests of the unbiased-expectations hypothesis at the one-week horizon, we nevertheless obtain essentially zero coefficients for intra-EMS exchange rates (and the familiar negative coefficients for extra-EMS rates). Even more puzzlingly, lagged exchange rate changes remain significant when added to the regression, a feature that seems harder to explain as a missing-variable effect. The deviation from UIP is significant not just statistically but also economically: trading-rule tests reveal that for sufficiently large filters the average profit per trade exceeds transaction costs, and that cumulative gains can be quite impressive. The size of the profits and the patterns from buy versus sell decisions also allow us to reject the risk premium and the Peso hypotheses as separately sufficient explanations.Bias; Costs; Currency; Decision; Decisions; EMS; ERM; Exchange rates; Forward bias; Hypotheses; Risk; Size; Trade; Trading rule; Transaction cost; International; Finance;

    DEVELOPMENT OF PAKISTAN'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (TVET): AN ANALYSIS OF SKILLING PAKISTAN REFORMS

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    Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) play an important role for socio-economic development of a country. An overview of documented literature reiterated that the TVET sector in Pakistan needs substantial reforms to meet the challenges of global skilled labour market. This paper focuses the development of TVET in Pakistan with particular emphasize on the “Skilling Pakistan” reforms outlined in National Skill Strategy (NSS) (2009-2013) and the progress of TVET reform support programme (2011-2016). The current progress showed satisfactory performance to achieve the 20 proposed reforms under 4 major components. Under the Skilling Pakistan reforms some tangible efforts for making a world class TVET system have been executed and also plan to achieve the desired objectives. Moreover, proper mechanisms for the implementation of proposed reforms were also framed with monitoring and performance evaluation to access the progress using overall success indicators. However, some others steps are suggested to be taken up by the Government to ensure the implementation of the current reforms with quality, equality, equity and equal access to build a lifelong learning society.

    Overweight, Obesity, and Screen-Time Viewing Among Chinese School-Aged Children: National Prevalence Estimates From the 2016 Physical Activity and Fitness in China—The Youth Study

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    Purpose: This study presents the most recent estimates of prevalence of overweight, obesity, and screen-time viewing among Chinese school-aged children. Demographic differences in these estimates between sexes and resident locales were also examined. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 116,615 Chinese school children 9 to 17 years of age who participated in the 2016 Physical Activity and Fitness in China—the Youth Study project. Outcomes were the prevalence of children\u27s overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85th - \u3c 95th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) (defined by the Working Group on Obesity in China) and not meeting screen-time viewing recommendations (“not meeting” was defined as more than 2 h per day of viewing activities after school). Analyses were conducted on the whole sample and by school grade cohorts (primary, junior middle, junior high schools), sex, and residence locales (urban, rural). Results: Overall, 14.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.8%-15.0%) of children and adolescents were overweight, 11.9% (95% CI: 11.0%-13.0%) were obese, and 36.8% (95% CI: 34.7%-38.9%) did not meet screen-time viewing recommendations. Across the 3 grade cohorts, boys were more likely to be obese than girls, and primary and junior middle school children living in urban areas were more likely to be obese than those living in rural areas. Primary and junior middle school boys were less likely to meet screen-time recommendations than girls, and junior high school children living in urban areas were less likely to meet screen-time recommendations than school children of the same grades living in rural areas. Conclusion: In 2016, the prevalence of obesity among Chinese school children was about 12%, and about 37% of them did not meet screen-time viewing recommendations. The prevalence of obesity and sedentary behavior was generally higher among boys than among girls, and it was higher for children living in urban areas than for those living in rural areas

    Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

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    The objectives of this study were (a) to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b) to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118) reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th) and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%). Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74-6.11), but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72-0.84), controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p \u3c 0.01). Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades

    Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus <it>Tobamovirus</it>, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA), direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.</p

    Transcriptome and Comparative Gene Expression Analysis of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in Response to Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

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    BACKGROUND: The white backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), causes great damage to many crops by direct feeding or transmitting plant viruses. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), transmitted by WBPH, has become a great threat to rice production in East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By de novo transcriptome assembling and massive parallel pyrosequencing, we constructed two transcriptomes of WBPH and profiled the alternation of gene expression in response to SRBSDV infection in transcriptional level. Over 25 million reads of high-quality DNA sequences and 81388 different unigenes were generated using Illumina technology from both viruliferous and non-viruliferous WBPH. WBPH has a very similar gene ontological distribution to other two closely related rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus. 7291 microsatellite loci were also predicted which could be useful for further evolutionary analysis. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated from viruliferous and non-viruliferous WBPH provided a list of candidate transcripts that potentially were elicited as a response to viral infection. Pathway analyses of a subset of these transcripts indicated that SRBSDV infection may perturb primary metabolism and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. In addition, 5.5% (181 out of 3315) of the genes in cell cytoskeleton organization pathway showed obvious changes. Our data also demonstrated that SRBSDV infection activated the immunity regulatory systems of WBPH, such as RNA interference, autophagy and antimicrobial peptide production. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We employed massively parallel pyrosequencing to collect ESTs from viruliferous and non-viruliferous samples of WBPH. 81388 different unigenes have been obtained. We for the first time described the direct effects of a Reoviridae family plant virus on global gene expression profiles of its insect vector using high-throughput sequencing. Our study will provide a road map for future investigations of the fascinating interactions between Reoviridae viruses and their insect vectors, and provide new strategies for crop protection

    The Association Between Health-Related Fitness and Physical Activity During Weekdays: Do Fit Students Exercise More After School?

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    Physically active students are more likely to be fit and learn better in school than sedentary ones. For school-aged children, it is unclear whether physical fitness level is an important determinant for student\u27s activity afterschool. This study examined the association between health-related physical fitness test performance and afterschool physical activity during weekdays. Participants (n = 97, 11-13 years old) completed health-related fitness tests. They wore Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for five consecutive days, recording physical activity participation during after school hours. Descriptive statistics for both afterschool physical activity and health-related fitness were summarized. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between variables. Participants spent most of their afterschool hours participating in sedentary behaviors (274.27 ± 66.89 min) and light physical activity (73.68 ± 51.66 min), and only 11.35 ± 16.92 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), accumulating approximately 2058.52 ± 1690.56 steps each day afterschool. The regression model explained 22.8% of the variance in afterschool MVPA, and Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) scores were the only statistically significant predictor (beta = 0.47, p \u3c 0.01). Fit students do tend to exercise more after school. Promoting physical fitness in school is an important factor for students\u27 afterschool physical activity participation during weekdays
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