43 research outputs found

    Strategies for Enriching Variant Coverage in Candidate Disease Loci on a Multiethnic Genotyping Array

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    Investigating genetic architecture of complex traits in ancestrally diverse populations is imperative to understand the etiology of disease. However, the current paucity of genetic research in people of African and Latin American ancestry, Hispanic and indigenous peoples in the United States is likely to exacerbate existing health disparities for many common diseases. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology, Phase II (PAGE II), Study was initiated in 2013 by the National Human Genome Research Institute to expand our understanding of complex trait loci in ethnically diverse and well characterized study populations. To meet this goal, the Multi-Ethnic Genotyping Array (MEGA) was designed to substantially improve fine-mapping and functional discovery by increasing variant coverage across multiple ethnicities at known loci for metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, inflammatory, anthropometric, and a variety of lifestyle traits. Studying the frequency distribution of clinically relevant mutations, putative risk alleles, and known functional variants across multiple populations will provide important insight into the genetic architecture of complex diseases and facilitate the discovery of novel, sometimes population-specific, disease associations. DNA samples from 51,650 self-identified African ancestry (17,328), Hispanic/Latino (22,379), Asian/Pacific Islander (8,640), and American Indian (653) and an additional 2,650 participants of either South Asian or European ancestry, and other reference panels have been genotyped on MEGA by PAGE II. MEGA was designed as a new resource for studying ancestrally diverse populations. Here, we describe the methodology for selecting trait-specific content for use in multi-ethnic populations and how enriching MEGA for this content may contribute to deeper biological understanding of the genetic etiology of complex disease

    Discovering prescription patterns in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome patients

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    OBJECTIVE: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by an abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or severe eating restrictions, along with at least two concomitant debilitating cognitive, behavioral, or neurological symptoms. A wide range of pharmacological interventions along with behavioral and environmental modifications, and psychotherapies have been adopted to treat symptoms and underlying etiologies. Our goal was to develop a data-driven approach to identify treatment patterns in this cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cohort study, we extracted medical prescription histories from electronic health records. We developed a modified dynamic programming approach to perform global alignment of those medication histories. Our approach is unique since it considers time gaps in prescription patterns as part of the similarity strategy. RESULTS: This study included 43 consecutive new-onset pre-pubertal patients who had at least 3 clinic visits. Our algorithm identified six clusters with distinct medication usage history which may represent clinician\u27s practice of treating PANS of different severities and etiologies i.e., two most severe groups requiring high dose intravenous steroids; two arthritic or inflammatory groups requiring prolonged nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID); and two mild relapsing/remitting group treated with a short course of NSAID. The psychometric scores as outcomes in each cluster generally improved within the first two years. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our algorithm shows potential to improve our knowledge of treatment patterns in the PANS cohort, while helping clinicians understand how patients respond to a combination of drugs

    Genome-Wide Association Study of Cryptosporidiosis in Infants Implicates PRKCA.

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    Diarrhea is a major cause of both morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among young children. Cryptosporidiosis is a leading cause of diarrhea in children, particularly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where it is responsible for over 200,000 deaths per year. Beyond the initial clinical presentation of diarrhea, it is associated with long-term sequelae such as malnutrition and neurocognitive developmental deficits. Risk factors include poverty and overcrowding, and yet not all children with these risk factors and exposure are infected, nor do all infected children develop symptomatic disease. One potential risk factor to explain these differences is their human genome. To identify genetic variants associated with symptomatic cryptosporidiosis, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) examining 6.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 873 children from three independent cohorts in Dhaka, Bangladesh, namely, the Dhaka Birth Cohort (DBC), the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries (PROVIDE) study, and the Cryptosporidiosis Birth Cohort (CBC). Associations were estimated separately for each cohort under an additive model, adjusting for length-for-age Z-score at 12 months of age, the first two principal components to account for population substructure, and genotyping batch. The strongest meta-analytic association was with rs58296998 (P = 3.73 × 10-8), an intronic SNP and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) of protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA). Each additional risk allele conferred 2.4 times the odds of Cryptosporidium-associated diarrhea in the first year of life. This genetic association suggests a role for protein kinase C alpha in pediatric cryptosporidiosis and warrants further investigation.IMPORTANCE Globally, diarrhea remains one of the major causes of pediatric morbidity and mortality. The initial symptoms of diarrhea can often lead to long-term consequences for the health of young children, such as malnutrition and neurocognitive developmental deficits. Despite many children having similar exposures to infectious causes of diarrhea, not all develop symptomatic disease, indicating a possible role for human genetic variation. Here, we conducted a genetic study of susceptibility to symptomatic disease associated with Cryptosporidium infection (a leading cause of diarrhea) in three independent cohorts of infants from Dhaka, Bangladesh. We identified a genetic variant within protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) associated with higher risk of cryptosporidiosis in the first year of life. These results indicate a role for human genetics in susceptibility to cryptosporidiosis and warrant further research to elucidate the mechanism

    Genetic identification of a common collagen disease in Puerto Ricans via identity-by-descent mapping in a health system

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    Achieving confidence in the causality of a disease locus is a complex task that often requires supporting data from both statistical genetics and clinical genomics. Here we describe a combined approach to identify and characterize a genetic disorder that leverages distantly related patients in a health system and population-scale mapping. We utilize genomic data to uncover components of distant pedigrees, in the absence of recorded pedigree information, in the multi-ethnic BioMe biobank in New York City. By linking to medical records, we discover a locus associated with both elevated genetic relatedness and extreme short stature. We link the gene, COL27A1, with a little-known genetic disease, previously thought to be rare and recessive. We demonstrate that disease manifests in both heterozygotes and homozygotes, indicating a common collagen disorder impacting up to 2% of individuals of Puerto Rican ancestry, leading to a better understanding of the continuum of complex and Mendelian disease

    Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor genes influence antibody responses to cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B vaccine

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is an important medical problem that has yet no current solution. A clinical trial of CMV glycoprotein B (gB) vaccine in young women showed promising efficacy. Improved understanding of the basis for prevention of CMV infection is essential for developing improved vaccines.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We genotyped 142 women previously vaccinated with three doses of CMV gB for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR 1-4, 6, 7, 9, and 10, and their associated intracellular signaling genes. SNPs in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA) and integrins were also selected based on their role in binding gB. Specific SNPs in TLR7 and IKBKE (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit epsilon) were associated with antibody responses to gB vaccine. Homozygous carriers of the minor allele at four SNPs in TLR7 showed higher vaccination-induced antibody responses to gB compared to heterozygotes or homozygotes for the common allele. SNP rs1953090 in IKBKE was associated with changes in antibody level from second to third dose of vaccine; homozygotes for the minor allele exhibited lower antibody responses while homozygotes for the major allele showed increased responses over time.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These data contribute to our understanding of the immunogenetic mechanisms underlying variations in the immune response to CMV vaccine.</p

    Admixture mapping of peripheral artery disease in a Dominican population reveals a putative risk locus on 2q35

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    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a form of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, affecting ∼8 million Americans, and is known to have racial and ethnic disparities. PAD has been reported to have a significantly higher prevalence in African Americans (AAs) compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (EAs). Hispanic/Latinos (HLs) have been reported to have lower or similar rates of PAD compared to EAs, despite having a paradoxically high burden of PAD risk factors; however, recent work suggests prevalence may differ between sub-groups. Here, we examined a large cohort of diverse adults in the BioMe biobank in New York City. We observed the prevalence of PAD at 1.7% in EAs vs. 8.5% and 9.4% in AAs and HLs, respectively, and among HL sub-groups, the prevalence was found at 11.4% and 11.5% in Puerto Rican and Dominican populations, respectively. Follow-up analysis that adjusted for common risk factors demonstrated that Dominicans had the highest increased risk for PAD relative to EAs [OR = 3.15 (95% CI 2.33–4.25), p &lt; 6.44 × 10−14]. To investigate whether genetic factors may explain this increased risk, we performed admixture mapping by testing the association between local ancestry and PAD in Dominican BioMe participants (N = 1,813) separately from European, African, and Native American (NAT) continental ancestry tracts. The top association with PAD was an NAT ancestry tract at chromosome 2q35 [OR = 1.96 (SE = 0.16), p &lt; 2.75 × 10−05) with 22.6% vs. 12.9% PAD prevalence in heterozygous NAT tract carriers versus non-carriers, respectively. Fine-mapping at this locus implicated tag SNP rs78529201 located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) LINC00607, a gene expression regulator of key genes related to thrombosis and extracellular remodeling of endothelial cells, suggesting a putative link of the 2q35 locus to PAD etiology. Efforts to reproduce the signal in other Hispanic cohorts were unsuccessful. In summary, we showed how leveraging health system data helped understand nuances of PAD risk across HL sub-groups and admixture mapping approaches elucidated a putative risk locus in a Dominican population